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atmospheric motion is the sun
and, in particular, the uneven
distribution of solar radiation
across the earth.

It is the primary job of the

energy in order to achieve a
balance from pole to equator.
methods of heat exchange in
the atmosphere to appreciate
how the thin atmosphere keeps
us alive.

Energy is the ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter.
There are several forms of energy, including the following
Potential energy is the energy which a body possesses as a consequence of its
position in a gravitational field (e.g., water behind a dam).
Kinetic energy is the energy which a body possesses as a consequence of its motion
(e.g., wind blowing across a wind generator). It is dependent upon an object's mass
and velocity (e.g., moving water versus moving air).
Internal energy is the total energy (potential and kinetic) stored in molecules.
Heat (or thermal) energy is kinetic energy due to motion of atoms and molecules. It is
energy that is in the process of being transferred from one object to another because
of their temperature difference.
Radiant energy is the energy that propagates through space or through material
media in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy lost during one
process must equal the energy gained during another.

Latent heat is the heat energy required to change a substance from one
state to another. There are basically three states of matter: solid, liquid,
and gas. The difference between them is how the molecules are
arranged. Solids have tightly-packed molecules, liquids are still bound
together but not strongly enough to keep them from flowing, and gas
molecules are free-flowing, not bound to one another at all. Energy is
required to change from one state to another because bonds must be
loosened, broken, tightened, or made. Energy must be given to the
molecules if bonds are to be loosened or broken and taken from the
molecules if they are to be tightened or made.
Latent heat of evaporation is the energy used to change liquid to vapor.
IMPORTANT: The temperature does not change during this process, so
heat added goes directly into changing the state of the substance.
About 600 calories of energy are needed for every gram of water at
room temperature. This is why you cool when you step out of the shower.
Heat is taken from your skin to evaporate the water on your body.


Energy is required to change from solid to liquid, liquid to gas (evaporation), or solid
to gas (sublimation). Energy will be released to change from liquid to solid (fusion),
gas to liquid (condensation), or gas to solid.
Evaporation is a cooling process.
Latent heat of condensation is energy released when water vapor condenses to
form liquid droplets. An identical amount of calories (about 600 cal/g) is released in
this process as was needed in the evaporation process. This is one mechanism of
how thunderstorms maintain their intensity. As moist air is lifted and cooled, water
vapor eventually condenses, which then allows for huge amounts of latent heat
energy to be released, feeding the storm.
Condensation is a warming process.
Latent heat of fusion describes both changing from solid to liquid and from liquid to
solid. From solid to liquid, about 80 calories per gram are needed. From liquid to
solid, about 80 cal/g are released.
Latent heat of sublimation describes both changing from solid to gas and gas to
solid. Sublimation is rare as compared to the other changes of state. From solid to
gas 600 + 80 = 680 calories per gram are needed. From gas to solid, 680 cal/g are

Conduction energy is transferred by the direct contact of molecules, not
by the movement of the material Example: putting your hand on a stove
burner. The amount of energy transferred depends on how conductive
the material is. Metals are good conductors, so they are used to transfer
energy from the stove to the food in pots and pans. Air is the best
insulator, so good insulating products try to trap air and not allow it to

Convection energy is transferred by the mass motion of groups of

molecules resulting in transport and mixing of properties
Example: holding your hand over a stove burner. In meteorology, we
speak of convection predominantly as that caused by rising currents of
warm air. We refer to all other mass motions of air as advection.
Radiation energy is transferred by electromagnetic radiation
Example: heat felt when standing away from a large fire on a calm night.
Everything that has a temperature above absolute zero radiates energy.
Radiation is not "felt" until it is absorbed by a substance. It does not
require a medium to transfer energy through as do conduction and

Specific heat is the amount of heat
needed to raise the temperature of
one gram of a substance one
degree Celsius.

The specific heat of water is very

high compared to other substances,
so water can store energy longer
than most other substances. For
example, the Gulf of Mexico remains
warm during the night, when air and
soil temperatures decrease rapidly.
Why is the Southern Hemisphere
summer generally not warmer than
the Northern Hemisphere summer
although Earth is closer to the sun
during the Southern Hemisphere
summer? Because most of the
Southern Hemisphere is water, which
regulates the seasonal temperatures.



Jika radiasi mengenai tubuh manusia, ada 2
kemungkinan yang dapat terjadi :
Jika berinteraksi, radiasi dapat mengionisasi atau
dapat pula mengeksitasi atom. Setiap terjadi proses
ionisasi atau eksitasi, radiasi akan kehilangan
sebagian energinya. Energi radiasi yang hilang
akan menyebabkan peningkatan temperatur
(panas) pada bahan (atom) yang berinteraksi
dengan radiasi tersebut.

semua energi radiasi yang terserap di jaringan
biologis akan muncul sebagai panas melalui
peningkatan vibrasi (getaran) atom dan struktur
Ini merupakan awal dari perubahan kimiawi yang
kemudian dapat mengakibatkan efek biologis
yang merugikan.

jaringan biologis adalah sel. Sel mempunyai inti sel

yang merupakan pusat pengontrol sel. Sel terdiri
dari 80% air dan 20% senyawa biologis kompleks.
Jika radiasi pengion menembus jaringan, maka
dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya ionisasi dan
menghasilkan radikal bebas, misalnya radikal
bebas hidroksil (OH), yang terdiri dari atom oksigen
dan atom hidrogen. Secara kimia, radikal bebas
sangat reaktif dan dapat mengubah molekulmolekul penting dalam sel.

mengakibatkan kerusakan pada sel.



Pertama, radiasi dapat mengionisasi langsung molekul

DNA sehingga terjadi perubahan kimiawi pada DNA.
Kedua, perubahan kimiawi pada DNA terjadi secara
tidak langsung, yaitu jika DNA berinteraksi dengan
radikal bebas hidroksil. Terjadinya perubahan kimiawi
pada DNA tersebut, baik secara langsung maupun tidak
langsung, dapat menyebabkan efek biologis yang
merugikan, misalnya timbulnya kanker maupun kelainan

Efek radiasi terhadap tubuh manusia bergantung pada

seberapa banyak dosis yang diberikan, dan bergantung
pula pada lajunya; apakah diberikan secara akut
(dalam jangka waktu seketika) atau secara gradual
(sedikit demi sedikit).

radiasi gamma dengan dosis 2 Sv (200 rem) yang

diberikan pada seluruh tubuh dalam waktu 30 menit
akan menyebabkan pusing dan muntah-muntah pada
beberapa persen manusia yang terkena dosis tersebut,
dan kemungkinan satu persen akan meninggal dalam
waktu satu atau dua bulan kemudian. Untuk dosis yang
sama tetapi diberikan dalam rentang waktu satu bulan
atau lebih, efek sindroma radiasi akut tersebut tidak

Contoh lain, dosis radiasi akut sebesar 3,5 4 Sv

(350 400 rem) yang diberikan seluruh tubuh akan
menyebabkan kematian sekitar 50% dari mereka
yang mendapat radiasi dalam waktu 30 hari
kemudian. Sebaliknya, dosis yang sama yang
diberikan secara merata dalam waktu satu tahun
tidak menimbulkan akibat yang sama.

Selain bergantung pada jumlah dan laju dosis,

setiap organ tubuh mempunyai kepekaan yang
berlainan terhadap radiasi, sehingga efek yang
ditimbulkan radiasi juga akan berbeda.