Module 6

COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL MOVEMENT and SOCIAL CHANGES

Definition of Collective Behavior 
COLLECTIVE

BEHAVIOR Spontaneous transitory of emotions and unpredictable events that involves crowd behavior, riots and panics and social movements. The level of institutionalization is low. Involves large number of people that doesn`t have to conform an established norms. 

There

is no stable and predictable event but it¶s changeable and episodic. People tend to act spontaneously on an unstructured ways. in direction and form more quickly when people become emotional and uninhibited. 

Behavior change 

According to

STORER 1980- its temporary, relatively undifferentiated patterns of behavior that are not guided by shared norms. It is considered collective for it involves actions of a group of people. 

According to

LOFLAND, 1985- it`s a nonroutine action of an emotionally aroused gathering of people who face and ambiguous situation. These are unplanned actions or relatively spontaneous actions were concerned individuals and groups improvised joint response to an unusual and problematic situation.

DETERMINANTS of COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR 
When

the existing pattern of social organization is inadequate and irrelevant for coping with the challenges of life. Situations changed or modified. The prescribed patterns of behavior become inadequate and also the pattern of stimulus-response will also be altered. It occurs when people strive to look for alternative patterns. 

When

people are faced with new and different situation which they have never encountered before. This new situations are brought about by the introduction of new ideas from other cultures or a result of the modifications of some of the social institutions within. 

When

there is an increasing indicates that the social control is becoming weaker to check on the deviation committed by the members

CHARACTERISTICS of GROUP INVOLVED in COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR 
It

is composed of relatively large number of people Relative anonymity prevails They are usually temporary in nature They lack formal organization in terms of an established system of differentiated positions.

TYPES of COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR 
CROWD temporarily

a large number of people gather around reacting on the same stimulus on a particular period or duration. When that stimulus is gone the crowd disappears and the people return to their normal routine and activities.

TYPES of CROWD Identified by BLUMER, 1951- the following are 1951different types of crowd: 

CASUAL CROWD cluster

of people who are gathered together because of an event or happening. It is a loose collection of people who interact a little. 

CONVENTIONAL CROWD people

gathered because of prearranged activity. It is a result of deliberating planning of an event. This type of crowd there are simple rules that guide the behavior of the people. 

EXPRESSIVE CROWD this

is formed around in an event that has an emotional appeal. People join expressive crowds to show and share their excitement caused by that certain event. It is characterized by rhythmic activity, intense emotional contagion and emotional release.

Lesson 1
Collective Behavior
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE:  DEFINE COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR  IDENTIFY THE DETERMENANTS of COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR  DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT TYPES of CROWD  GIVE EXPLANATIONS FOR CROWDBEHAVIOR. 

ACTING

CROWD Members are actually involved in the event. They actively participated in the pursuit of their goals and often united by a strong emotions the sometimes reach the high intensity that provokes the people or the participants to violence.

THREE FORMS of ACTING CROWDS 
RIOTS A disorderly, violous

and lawless action of the participant on a certain event, their actions are directly against one another. 

MOBS A highly emotional

crowd in common pursuit of some violence or destructive goals. The participants cooperate with the crowd against another stimulus. To crowd around and harass or attack. 

ORGY The participant finds

means to release the suppressed emotions and tensions. A party characterized by or having numerous sexual patterns on a casual basis.

EXPLANATION for CROWD BEHAVIOR 
Crowd behavior

has been explained in various ways. There under on some theories explaining about crowd behavior.

CONTAGIOUS THEORY 
GUSTAV LE

BON an early French thinker formulates this theory. He believes that when people are in crowds a collective consciousness emerges this collective consciousness formulates individual consciousness. Le Bon perceived this process as the ``law of mental unity of crowds``.

CONVERGENCE THEORY 
According

to VANDER ZANDEN, 1990this theory refers to the idea that participants in a crowd are basically revealing their true selves. The crowd functions as a pretext to translate latent impulse to view out an action, the convergence of people to share the same disposition and identify a category of people as `` crowd prone``.

EMERGENTEMERGENT-NORM THEORY 
RALPH TURNER

and LEWIS KILLIANS developed this theory. They pointed out that crowd behavior is like other collective and group processes that should be incorporated within a common theoretical framework of structure and processes. They believed that in a crowd situations are defined, sanctioning behavior develops and action patterns agreed upon and justified.

HYSTERIA and PANIC 
Panic and

Hysteria are related form of collective behavior. It is characterized by heightened emotions among people dispersed over a wide area. 

PANIC  Is a form of localized collective behavior by which people react on some emotional, irrational stimulus and often self-destructive behavior. The stimulus that provokes panic is a threat and people respond by taking radical steps. 

HYSTERIA Is

a form of dispersal collective behavior by which people respond to a real or imagined event with irrational, frantic behavior. Commonly respond to a perceived threat. This can be form of fear or excitement depends to the situation. This threat might spark to a crowd that causes hysteria may or may not be real.

CRAZE, FADE and FASHION 
According

to STORER, 1980- This behavior are the least destructive since they do not really disrupt nor modify the system as a whole. It varies in lifestyles, behavior and in use of certain objects or habits. These forms of behavior are longer in duration than the crowd and considered to be more responses to opportunities rather than threats. 

CRAZE Develops when

a particular object is given an unusually high value and as a result it serves as one of the obsession of individuals. It depends on the shared beliefs of the members. 

FADE Is

an unconventional social pattern that is enthusiastically embraced by a large number of people for a short time. Once a new object are made known to people and become popular, people become interested in having the object or engaged immediately in the hobby. 

FASHION Social pattern favored for

a time by a large number of people. It can be in a form of changes in style of clothing, hairstyle etc. it is transitory, sometimes lasting only for months. The changes are cyclical.

RUMORS and GOSSIPS 
Collective behavior is

not limited to people in physical proximity, sociologists use the term mass behavior to refer to collective behavior among people dispersed over a wide geographical area.

RUMORS 
RUMORS Is

unsubstantiated information spread informally, often by word of mouth. Always been an element of social life, but the means of transmitting them have changed dramatically in the last century. It was transmitted by means of face-to-face communication and more rapidly by means of media, computers, telephones any communicating object used by an individual.

THREE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS of RUMORS 
RUMORS THRIVES IN A CLIMATE

OF AMBIGUITY Rumors grow when people are deprived of definite information about a certain topic. According to ROSNOW and FINE 1976-it is an effort to define reality in a particular way in the absence of substantiated facts. 

RUMORS IS

CHANGEABLE As a rumors circulate it is altered the certain information and add confusion which details change depends to the numbers of individual interest to the topic.  RUMORS IS TYPICALLY DIFFICULT TO STOP Once the information is transmitted and it gets more interested people the spreading of it is unstoppable.

GOSSIP 
GOSSIP Is

idle talk or rumors about private affairs of others. CHARLES HORTON COOLEY points outs, while rumors involve issues or events of interest are largely segmented to the public.

PUBLIC OPINION 
PUBLIC OPINION  It is

a form of highly dispersed collective behavior which is defined as widespread attitudes towards one or more controversial issues. According to HORTON and HUNT defined public opinion as a number of people who are concerned over, divided upon and in discussion about an issues. Media is the most important instrument in this behavior. When a particular issue is raised people reacts on it either be opposing or not.

Lesson 2
Social Movement 
UNDERSTANDING THE

MEANING of

SOCIAL MOVEMENT  IDENTIFY and DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATION  IDENTIFY THE DIFFERENT STAGES of SOCIAL MOVEMENT

Meaning of Social Movement 
According

to TURNER and KILLIAN, 1972- social movement is collectively acting with some continuity to promote or resist a change in the society or group of which is a part.

FOUR STAGES IN DEVELOPING a SOCIAL MOVEMENT 
STAGE

1.

EMERGENCE Social movement is driven by the perception that all is not well. Some movement is born of wide spread dissatisfaction. Other emerge only as a small group that increase public awareness of some issues. 

STAGE

2.

COALESCENCE Social movement must identify it clearly and formulate a strategy to be exposing in public. Leaders made tactics and policies and recruit new members. At this point they form rallies and demonstrations that promote them in public that made be aware and also it can have alliances with other organization to gain resources if it¶s necessary. 

STAGE3.

BUREAUCRATIZATION To become established, it assumes bureaucratic traits and become routinized. It depends less in charisma and talent of few leaders and more on capable staff. 

STAGE 4.

DECLINE  According to WRIGHT, 1987 social movement is inherently dynamic so decline is not necessarily demise but some social movement reach at the point it decline. This may attribute to the following: 
Accomplishment of its

goals  Poor leadership and lost of interest to their goal  Exhausting of resources  Selling out or bribery  Regression of members by the authorities  It become established and accepted as part of the system.

Lesson 3
SOCIAL CHANGES 
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:  DEFINE SOCIAL CHANGES  INDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN TWO

IMPORTANT WAYS WHICH SOCIETY CHANGE  COMPARE AND DIFFERENTIATE THREE EXPLANATIONS OF SOCIAL CHANGES

Meaning of Social Changes 
According to

DENEDSOFF, 1983-it involves alternation or modification of social institution and society over a period of time,  According to PERSEL, it`s a significant and major changes patterned by social behavior at the institutional societal level.  According to MACIONIS, it`s a transformation of culture as social institution over time.

THE PROCESS of SOCIAL CHANGES 
INVASION

and DISCOVERY Invention involves the creation of new things. Through invention societies grow and change. Discovery is a shared human experience of an element of reality which altered exists. Additional to the world`s store of verified knowledge. 

DIFFUSION The transfer of

cultural elements from one society to another, involves borrowing and adopting cultural patterns or traits from other groups or societies. It occurs directly through communication with one another and indirectly through the mass media.

MODERNITY 
Modernity is

the key concept of the study of social changes. It is a pattern of social life linked to industrialization and through it social changes initiated.

BERGERN, 1977 note four general characteristics of modernization: The decline of all traditional communities Expansion of personal choices Increasing diversity in beliefs Future orientation and growing awareness of time 
PETER

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