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By: Andy Wang Cara Yan
Lesson1 population and sustainable development
• Meaning of population: Population, as defined, refers to the number of people living in a given area. Hawley defines population as an aggregate of individuals who have access to environment as a means of sustenance and who are in the state of interdependence. To sociologists, population is the number of persons occupying a certain geographical area, drawing sustenance from their environment, and interacting with one another.
Components of population
• A : Population growth Growth rate describe the rate of which population is increasing or decreasing; i.e., the surplus or deficit of births over deaths and net migration.
• B: Population structure The age-sex structure of a population describes its composition according to the number of males and females in given age groupings. This structure is often represented by a barchart called population pyramid.
• Population pyramid The population pyramid is special type of barchart shows the age and sex distribution of the population. • Three general types of pyramid: 1. Expansive 2. Constructive 3. Stationary
• Population pyramid is also used to determine dependency ratio:
C: Spatial distribution Population density or the number of population per square meter land area providers a means of spatial distribution of population. 1. Fertility. The first determinant of population change is fertility or births. Two measures are used to measure fertility: the crude birth rate (CBR) and total fertility rate (TFR).
2.Mortality: The second determinant of population change is mortality or deaths. Every time a person die, whether young or old, the population decreases by one. Mortality is the technical term for death. It is a component of population change and has a negative effect on population. The simplest measure of mortality is the crude death rate (CDR) which is the number of death per 1,000 population in a given year. There are other measures of mortality. One such measure is infant mortality rate (IMR):
3. Migration. The migration in the country is basically rural to urban movement, this movement is largely characterized by long distance moves; involving females, the unmarried, the young and the relatively low educated. And it is not universal. Migration within the provinces or a state is called internal migration. The terms in-migration and out-migration are generally used instead of immigration and emigration.
• 1. 2. 3.
The reasons for migration include: Employment Pursuit of higher education Expectation of better housing, amenities and social services 4. Natural calamities; e.g., the Mt. Pinatubo case 5. Population pressure on agricultural lands
Consequences of rapid population
• Economic development. Economic development does not refer to the total development of a society. It is only industrialization of national economic even in an agri-based society. • Education . Education is vitally important and so educational opportunities must be expanded. • Employment. Rising unemployment is a problem facing both developed and developing countries, but it is more severe in developing countries.
• Health and other social services. As population grows, the maintenance of existing health and social services becomes increasingly difficultadding to them is nearly difficult. The rapid increase in population has generated a heavy demand for all types of health and a host of others. • Ecosystem. Ecosystem are life support systems. They are capable of renewing themselves even in the fact of major man-made disturbances, but only up to a certain point.
Lesson 2 Population, resources, environment and sustainable development
1.Carrying capacity. Carrying capacity can be defined as the number of pope that the earth can support without irreversibly reducing capacity to support population in the future. 2.Population and the environment. Given rapid population growth, there is a fierce competition for resources, land and water. This leads to the alarming depletion of natural resources. 3. Population and natural resources. A country’s population depends on its natural resources for its needs
Environmental problems having physical, social and economic consequences may be grouped under three categories: 1. Resources deterioration- these are problems arising from shortage of food, mineral, power and other resources. 2. Environmental pollution- these are pollution of air, water and land causing bispheric destruction including human health and quality of life; and 3. Radioactivity from nuclear weapons and nuclear energy production.
4.Land resource. Only about 11 percent of the earth’s total land surface is arable or can be regularly plowed for seeding and growing crops. Yet from this land, the farming community must produce enough food to feed the growing population. Although, there is still uncultivated land with potential for agriculture, the process of developing and preparing the land for cultivation may be costly. In spite of these trends, agricultural land remains one of the largest single contributor to the national economy.
• 5. Forest resources. A serious cause of forest denudation is subsistence cultivation and excessive fuel harvesting as distinguished from commercial logging. Problems begin when the number of people are more than what is available forest resources can support. • 6. Marine resources. Increasing population pressure spells on impending thinning out of the coastal resources.
• 7. Water resources. More than one-half of the world’s population have no access to sage drinking water. In consequences, waterborne diseases are prevalent and are a major factor contributing to mortality and morbidity rate, more especially among young children. In many developing countries, including the Philippines, water for both household and for agriculture is in short supply. • 8. Mineral resources. Metals, non-metals and energy resources abound the country’s mountains, coasts, plants, and even offshore areas. And because they are nonrenewable, they are limited.
• 9. Energy resources. The total energy consumption is growing. Up to the year 32000, transportation, power and manufacturing are likely to take up 80 percent of the total petroleum consumption. Of this total share, public and private transport alone is expected to account for 38 percent. With increases population, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of land transport vehicles.
Relationship between demographic and environmental variables
• Demographic factors determine the nature and intensity of socioeconomic activities in a rural environment. These socio-economic activities directly affect the environment and the natural resources influences socio-economic activities. • Population dimension determine the level of demand for goods, in this case, mainly derived from the environmental resources.
Lesson 3 Integrated policies and sustainable development
• Population and rural poverty. There are many countries develop the technologies of produce food. However, owing to the rapid growth in rural population, the pressure on land has also considerably increased. One of the major problems faced by the rural population is the depletion of energy resources particularly fuel-wood.
Integrated policies for sustainable development. To solve the problems arising from the population and environment interactions, sectoral isolationism should be replaced by integrated approaches. • Resources for an integrated approach. Funds 、 skilled needs 、 educational 、 religious and cultural 、 institutions
The interrelationship between and among population, resources, environment and sustainable development.
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