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EE 2802

Applied Electricity

Outline Syllabus
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Transformers
Induction motors
DC motors
Special purpose motors
Solid state control
Electrical lighting
Heating and welding
Electrical wiring
Economics of power utilization
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Learning Outcomes

Calculating transformer & motor performance


under variety of load conditions
Selection of electrical motors for a given
applications
Basic knowledge in electricity utilization in the
areas of lighting, heating and welding
Understanding wiring regulations
Carry out simple voltage drop calculations for
cables
Estimate monthly electricity bill for an
installation
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I would like you to;

Be punctual
Only one person speaks at a time in full
class discussions
Show mutual respect and listen
Everyone completes assigned homework
Everyone participate actively in learning
activities
Everyone works towards achieving learning
outcomes
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Electrical Machines
Electrical
Machines

Static
Dynamic
Generators & Motors
Transformers
DC
AC Machines
Machines
Synchronous
Machines
Asynchronous /
Induction Machines
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Transformers
Applied Electricity EE 2802
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Working principle
3. Turns ratio
4. Emf equation
5. Equivalent circuit
& phasor diagram
6. Voltage regulation
7. Losses &
efficiency
8. Cooling
9. Tests on
transformers
10. Three phase transformers
11. Transformer ratings & nameplate
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1) Introduction
A transformer is
a static device,
that changes ac electric power at one
voltage level to another voltage level
of the same frequency
through the action of a magnetic filed

Why transformers are important?


Ideally voltage changes without
affecting the power supplied
Losses (in power transmission lines)
I2
Electric power generated at one
location
Voltage stepped up (current reducing)
Transmitted with very low losses
Voltage stepped down for final use

2) Working Principle
(Single-phase power transformers)

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2 windings
Primary
- connected to the alternating
voltage
source
Secondary
- delivers the power to the load

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Ideal Transformer

A lossless device

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3) Turns Ratio

Stepped up and down transformer


depends on the turns ratio

For an ideal transformer,


mmf due to primary current
= mmf due to secondary current

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4) emf Equation

Sinusoidal primary current produces a


sinusoidal flux

emf induced in the primary winding

maximum value of e1

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effective value of the primary emf

Similarly, the effective value of the


secondary emf

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5) Equivalent Circuit and


Phasor Diagram
Practical Transformers
Windings of practical transformers
have resistance
Core is not infinitely permeable
Flux is not completely transferred to
the secondary
Iron cores produce eddy-current and
hysteresis losses
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Practical Transformer

Rm (core loss resistance)


- represents iron losses
Xm (magnetizing reactance)
- measure of the permeability of
the transformer core

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Equivalent Circuit

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Phasor Diagram

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Referring Impedances

Resistance
in the primary becomes
when referred to the
secondary

Resistance
becomes

in the secondary
when referred
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Equivalent Circuit

Referred to primary

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Referred to secondary

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Approximate Equivalent Circuit

Referred to primary

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Referred to secondary

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Example 1
A 100kVA single phase transformer has
400 turns in the primary and has 80
turns in the secondary. In primary side
X1=1.1 and R1=0.3. In secondary
side, X2=0.035 and R2=0.01. Supply
voltage is 2200V.
Determine the equivalent impedance
referred to primary.
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6) Voltage Regulation

When the transformer is loaded ->


secondary voltage changes due to
drop in the internal impedance

Voltage regulation is a term that is


used to identify this variation

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Transformer taps
- To permit small changes in the turns
ratio
- Possible to maintain the voltage up to
x% of the rated value

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7) Losses & Efficiency


Losses:
- Copper loss
- Core loss
- Eddy current loss
- Hysteresis loss

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Efficiency is a function of secondary


current

For maximum efficiency;

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8) Cooling
Indoor transformers below 200kVA
Cooled by the natural flow of the air
Placed inside a metallic housing
which is
having ventilating louvers
Indoor larger transformers
Built the same way
Forced circulation of clean air is
provided

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Distribution transformers below 200kVA


Immersed in mineral oil and enclosed
in
a steel tank
Heat is dissipated by radiation and
convection to the outside air

Large distribution transformers


External radiators are added to
increase
the cooling surface of the
oil filled tank
Oil circulates around the transformer
windings and moves through the
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For still higher ratings


Cooling fans blow air over the
radiators
For transformers in the megawatt range
Cooling may be effected by an oilwater heat exchanger

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9) Tests on Transformers

Open Circuit Test


- High voltage side kept open
- Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
at low voltage side

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Wattmeter reading is the core loss

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Short Circuit Test


- Low voltage side short circuited
- Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
at high voltage side

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Wattmeter reading is the copper loss

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Example 2
A 2400V/240V, 24kVA transformer gave the
following results.
High voltage side open - 240V, 2A, 200W
Low voltage side closed
- 100V, 10A,
150W
The transformer is supplying an load of 0.8
power factor lagging at full load.
Find the equivalent circuit parameters.
Calculate operating efficiency and
maximum efficiency.

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10) Three Phase


Transformers
Made either by:
1. 3 single phase transformers connected
2. 3 windings are wound on a common
core
1st approach each unit could be
replaced individually
2nd approach - cheaper, smaller and
lighter
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Three-phase transformer
connections
Depending on the connections of
primary and secondary coils;
Y-Y
Y-
-Y
-
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Y-Y connection

Rarely used for large amount of power


transmission
Can be used for special types of
applications
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Y- connection

Used at substations where the voltage


is stepped down

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-Y connection

Used at the generator station, where


the voltage is stepped up
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- connection

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Using 2 transformers
Reduction in the power handling
capacity
Economical

1. Open

( V-V)

Y Open
3. Scott T
2. Open

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Example 3
Three identical single-phase transformers
are needed to connect a 6 kVA, 120V,
three-phase load to a 4800V, three-phase
transmission line.
For a Y/ connection, determine the
followings of each single-phase
transformer.
I. Power rating
II. Voltage rating
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11) Transformer ratings &


nameplate
4 major ratings
* Apparent power
* Current

* Voltage
* Frequency

- To protect winding insulations from


breakdown due to high voltages
- To prevent high heating loss
- If operated on a different frequency, voltage
should also be changed

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11) Other types of


Transformers
1) Auto Transformer
For small changes in voltage
Small rating transformer with
variable output
Used in educational laboratories
Has one winding -> common for
primary and secondary

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Advantages:
Cheaper initial investment
Low leakage reactance
Low losses
Requires low excitation current
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2)

Instrument Transformers

Voltage Transformer (Potential


Transformer)
Ratio of primary to secondary
voltage is known
HV primary & LV secondary
Low power rating
Provide a sample of the power
systems voltage to the instruments
measuring it
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Current Transformer
Ratio of primary to secondary
current is known
Sample the current in a line &
reduce it to a safe and measurable
level

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References

Electrical Machinery & Transformers


Guru & Hizirogly

Electrical Machines Theory &


Practice
M N Bandyopadhyay

Electrical Machinery Fundamentals


Stephan J Chapman
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