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# EE 2802

Applied Electricity

Outline Syllabus
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Transformers
Induction motors
DC motors
Special purpose motors
Solid state control
Electrical lighting
Heating and welding
Electrical wiring
Economics of power utilization
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Learning Outcomes

## Calculating transformer & motor performance

Selection of electrical motors for a given
applications
Basic knowledge in electricity utilization in the
areas of lighting, heating and welding
Understanding wiring regulations
Carry out simple voltage drop calculations for
cables
Estimate monthly electricity bill for an
installation
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## I would like you to;

Be punctual
Only one person speaks at a time in full
class discussions
Show mutual respect and listen
Everyone completes assigned homework
Everyone participate actively in learning
activities
Everyone works towards achieving learning
outcomes
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Electrical Machines
Electrical
Machines

Static
Dynamic
Generators & Motors
Transformers
DC
AC Machines
Machines
Synchronous
Machines
Asynchronous /
Induction Machines
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Transformers
Applied Electricity EE 2802
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Working principle
3. Turns ratio
4. Emf equation
5. Equivalent circuit
& phasor diagram
6. Voltage regulation
7. Losses &
efficiency
8. Cooling
9. Tests on
transformers
10. Three phase transformers
11. Transformer ratings & nameplate
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1) Introduction
A transformer is
a static device,
that changes ac electric power at one
voltage level to another voltage level
of the same frequency
through the action of a magnetic filed

## Why transformers are important?

Ideally voltage changes without
affecting the power supplied
Losses (in power transmission lines)
I2
Electric power generated at one
location
Voltage stepped up (current reducing)
Transmitted with very low losses
Voltage stepped down for final use

2) Working Principle
(Single-phase power transformers)

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2 windings
Primary
- connected to the alternating
voltage
source
Secondary
- delivers the power to the load

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Ideal Transformer

A lossless device

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3) Turns Ratio

## Stepped up and down transformer

depends on the turns ratio

## For an ideal transformer,

mmf due to primary current
= mmf due to secondary current

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4) emf Equation

sinusoidal flux

## emf induced in the primary winding

maximum value of e1

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secondary emf

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## 5) Equivalent Circuit and

Phasor Diagram
Practical Transformers
Windings of practical transformers
have resistance
Core is not infinitely permeable
Flux is not completely transferred to
the secondary
Iron cores produce eddy-current and
hysteresis losses
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Practical Transformer

## Rm (core loss resistance)

- represents iron losses
Xm (magnetizing reactance)
- measure of the permeability of
the transformer core

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Equivalent Circuit

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Phasor Diagram

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Referring Impedances

Resistance
in the primary becomes
when referred to the
secondary

Resistance
becomes

in the secondary
when referred
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Equivalent Circuit

Referred to primary

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Referred to secondary

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## Approximate Equivalent Circuit

Referred to primary

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Referred to secondary

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Example 1
A 100kVA single phase transformer has
400 turns in the primary and has 80
turns in the secondary. In primary side
X1=1.1 and R1=0.3. In secondary
side, X2=0.035 and R2=0.01. Supply
voltage is 2200V.
Determine the equivalent impedance
referred to primary.
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6) Voltage Regulation

## When the transformer is loaded ->

secondary voltage changes due to
drop in the internal impedance

## Voltage regulation is a term that is

used to identify this variation

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Transformer taps
- To permit small changes in the turns
ratio
- Possible to maintain the voltage up to
x% of the rated value

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## 7) Losses & Efficiency

Losses:
- Copper loss
- Core loss
- Eddy current loss
- Hysteresis loss

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current

## For maximum efficiency;

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8) Cooling
Indoor transformers below 200kVA
Cooled by the natural flow of the air
Placed inside a metallic housing
which is
having ventilating louvers
Indoor larger transformers
Built the same way
Forced circulation of clean air is
provided

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## Distribution transformers below 200kVA

Immersed in mineral oil and enclosed
in
a steel tank
Heat is dissipated by radiation and
convection to the outside air

## Large distribution transformers

increase
the cooling surface of the
oil filled tank
Oil circulates around the transformer
windings and moves through the
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## For still higher ratings

Cooling fans blow air over the
For transformers in the megawatt range
Cooling may be effected by an oilwater heat exchanger

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9) Tests on Transformers

## Open Circuit Test

- High voltage side kept open
- Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
at low voltage side

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## Short Circuit Test

- Low voltage side short circuited
- Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
at high voltage side

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## Wattmeter reading is the copper loss

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Example 2
A 2400V/240V, 24kVA transformer gave the
following results.
High voltage side open - 240V, 2A, 200W
Low voltage side closed
- 100V, 10A,
150W
The transformer is supplying an load of 0.8
power factor lagging at full load.
Find the equivalent circuit parameters.
Calculate operating efficiency and
maximum efficiency.

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## 10) Three Phase

Transformers
1. 3 single phase transformers connected
2. 3 windings are wound on a common
core
1st approach each unit could be
replaced individually
2nd approach - cheaper, smaller and
lighter
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Three-phase transformer
connections
Depending on the connections of
primary and secondary coils;
Y-Y
Y-
-Y
-
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Y-Y connection

## Rarely used for large amount of power

transmission
Can be used for special types of
applications
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Y- connection

is stepped down

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-Y connection

## Used at the generator station, where

the voltage is stepped up
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- connection

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Using 2 transformers
Reduction in the power handling
capacity
Economical

1. Open

( V-V)

Y Open
3. Scott T
2. Open

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Example 3
Three identical single-phase transformers
are needed to connect a 6 kVA, 120V,
three-phase load to a 4800V, three-phase
transmission line.
For a Y/ connection, determine the
followings of each single-phase
transformer.
I. Power rating
II. Voltage rating
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nameplate
4 major ratings
* Apparent power
* Current

* Voltage
* Frequency

## - To protect winding insulations from

breakdown due to high voltages
- To prevent high heating loss
- If operated on a different frequency, voltage
should also be changed

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## 11) Other types of

Transformers
1) Auto Transformer
For small changes in voltage
Small rating transformer with
variable output
Used in educational laboratories
Has one winding -> common for
primary and secondary

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Cheaper initial investment
Low leakage reactance
Low losses
Requires low excitation current
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2)

Instrument Transformers

## Voltage Transformer (Potential

Transformer)
Ratio of primary to secondary
voltage is known
HV primary & LV secondary
Low power rating
Provide a sample of the power
systems voltage to the instruments
measuring it
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Current Transformer
Ratio of primary to secondary
current is known
Sample the current in a line &
reduce it to a safe and measurable
level

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References

Guru & Hizirogly

Practice