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1)BARNARD KEYS and THOMAS CASE: Leadership is the process of

influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards
achieving objectives.

2)KEITH DAVIS: Leadership refers to the ability to persuade others to seek

defined objectives enthusiastically.

Thus leadership is : Ability of a person to influence subordinates to carry

out assignment with confidence and zeal.
L= f(L,F,S)
This leadership is a function of Leader (personality characteristics of
leader), Followers(type and characteristics of followers), and Situation
(type of station in which he has to lead followers).

Leadership Theories and Implications

Management scientists, behaviourists, and practitioners have evoked a

number of theories to guide practicing manager to lead employees
effectively. There are about 8 leadership theories. They are:
1. Trait Theory of Leadership
2. Behavioural Theories
3. Likerts Four Systems of Management
4. Hersey and Blanchards Life-Cycle
5. Fiedlers contingency theory
6. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
7. Views of Tannenbaum and Schimdt on Leadership Styles
8. Managerial Grid by Blake and Mouton

Trait theory is traditional explanation of leadership effectiveness.

Mainly based on issue: What characteristics or traits make a person the


Trait Theories

Common Leadership Traits

Physical Traits

Communication Skills


Social Skills


Sense of Responsibility





Enthusiasm, spirit




Emotional Stability




No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations.

Traits predict behavior better in weak than strong situations.

Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.

Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and

ineffective leaders.

There is no guarantee that a person holding the above mentioned traits will

Behavioural Theory of Leadership

This theory depends on the specific behaviour the leader exhibits.

Suggests that leaders behaviour plays critical role to lead others


The most popular studies on Behaviour Leadership include:

1. The Ohio State Study
2. The University of Michigan Study
3. Scandinavian Studies
4. Continuous Leadership

The Ohio State Studies

The Ohio State Studies sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior

Initiating structure


The University of Michigan Studies

The University of Michigan Studies sought to identify the behavioral characteristics of leaders related to
performance effectiveness

Employee oriented

Production oriented

Scandinavian Studies: Ohio State and Michigan Studies are more relevant to developed
countries. However demand of new leadership theory in the perspective of Growing or
Progressing economies arisen in 1990s.
Research studies conducted in Finland and Sweden concluded that a Leader must
exhibit development oriented behaviour in emerging economies.
Considers the new third dimension of Developent Orientation along with task and
employee orientation.

According to Scandinavian studies a leader must stress on creativity, innovation, and

experiments to generate new and challenging ideas. He should be prepared to to invite and
implement changes that accelerate economic growth. Development oriented leaders can
develop more competent and subordinates.

Contingency Theories
& situational Theories of Leadership

Contingency Theories

Fiedler Model

Cognitive Resource Theory

Hersey and Blencherds Situational Theory

Path-Goal Theory

Leader Participation Model

While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is
missing. the environment in which the leader exists.Contingency Theory deals with this additional
aspect of leadership effectiveness studies.

Fielder Model

Fielder Model: The theory that effective groups depend upon a proper match between a leader's
style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence
to the leader.
There are 3 stages: 1) Identifying leadership style, 2) Types of situations, 3) Evaluation.

1) Leadership Styles:
a) Task Structured or Hard nosed: Under this style, the leader gives more importance to the tasks to be
B) Human Relations or Lenient: Under this style, the leader gives more importance to the relationships
2) Types of Situations:
a) Highly favorable situation: Situation can be said as highly favorable when leader-member relation is
good, task is highly structured, and the leader has a strong power position.
b) Highly Unfavorable Situation: Situation can be said as highly unfavorable when leader-member
relation is poor, task is lowly structured, and the leader has weak power position.

3. Moderately favourable and Moderately Unfavourable Situation: Situation can be said as moderately
favourable and moderately unfavourable if when variables show mixed position, for example, relation
is good, power position is strong, but task is not structured.

Evaluation: The major breakthrough of this theory from others is its evaluation. It states that

leadership effectiveness depends on proper match or fit approach between leadership style and
type of situation.

Hersey and Blancards Life-Cycle

A model that focuses on follower readiness

Followers can accept or reject the leader

Effectiveness depends on the followers response to the leaders actions

Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a
specific task

A paternal model:

As the child matures, the adult releases more and more control over the situation

As the workers become more ready, the leader becomes more laissez-faire

Leadership Styles: Hersey and Blanchard identified two major leadership dimensions. A) Task , b)
Relationship. Each can be high or low, and, then, combining them, they developed four styles.

The most effective style depends on the followers ability and motivation


If followers are unable and unwilling to do a task,

the leader needs to give specific and clear directions.


If followers are unable and willing,

The leader need to display a high task orientation.


If the followers are able and unwilling,

The leader needs to use a supportive and participative style.


If followers are both able and willing,

The leader doesn't need to do much.

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership


Four types of leaders:

Directive: focuses on the work to be done

Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker

Participative: consults with employees in decision-making

Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals



There are various styles of leadership. They fall between two extremes- very strict and very free.
We can interpret them as boss centred and subordinate centred as expressed by Tannenbaum and
Schmidt in their classic leadership continuum.

Generally the extreme ends neither boss centered nor subordinate centered are completely
successful. Thus it must be a mixture and the situation depends on three aspects:
1. Characteristics of manager: Including his values, perceptions, feeling of security, and confidence of
2. Characteristics of subordinates,including need for independence, a sense of responsibility, ability to
understand situations and take decisions, interest in problem, and so on.
3. Characteristics of situation, including type of organisation, structure, policies, group effectiveness,

Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid

Has also been called the Managerial Grid(1957). Blake and Mouton have used phase
concern for to indicate degree of emphasis on people or production.
1. Concern for production
2. Concern for people.

Focuses communication styles

1,1 Impoverished Mgt

9,1 Authority-Compliance

5,5 Middle of the Road Management

1,9 Country Club Management

9,9 Team Management




The Charismatic Leadership Theory

Charismatic leadership theory assumes that a leader who has charisma(charm, magnetism or
attraction) can effectively command the followers to do the intend things.

Characteristics: Robert House and Bernard M.Bass suggested the following characteristics of
charismatic leaders:
1. Self-Confidence and confidence in subordinates.
2. High expectations for subordinates
3. Ideological vision
4. Use of personal example (i.e., to be role model for followers)
5. Superior debating and persuasive skills
6. Technical skills
7. Ability to foster attitudinal, behavioural, and emotional changes in followers.

Charismatic leadership theory assumes that leader makes the followers perform beyond expectations.
Glorious, impressive, and gorgeous personality of leader attracts the followers. Followers are prod of
their leader and prefer to follow him unconditionally.



In fact, transformational theory is inclusive of charismatic leadership theory as the charismatic leader
can transform things- behaviour of people, structure of organisation, and other relevant aspects.
Examples are: Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Swami Vivekananda etc.

Characteristics of a transformational leader

1. Transformational leaders identify themselves as the change agents.
2. They are courageous.
3. They believe in people.
4. They are value driven.
5. They are life long learners.
6. They have the ability to deal with complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty.
7. They are visionaries.

Constituents of transformational leadership:

1. Individual Consideration, 2.Intellectual Stimulation, 3. Inspirational Motivation, 4.Role and
Identification Model

Followership Theory/Style of

Under this theory, followers control or influence leaders behaviour.

Followers style, not leaders style, is a key input leading to efforts towards organisational effectiveness
and outcomes.

It emphasises on role of followers in attaining goals.

Followership Styles:
1. Yes Boss Style
2. No Boss Style
3. Escaping Style
4. Gambling Style
5. Intellectual Arrogant (or Egoistical) Style
6. Critical Style

Matching Followers Style with Leadership Style:

Other Theories

(a) The Social Cognitive Leadership Theory

(b) The Substitute Leadership Theory

(c) The Positive and Authentic Leadership Theory

Thank you