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Principle of Neurobioimaging

Peni K Samsuria Mutalib


Medical Physics Department
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Goal
Describe the principle of X-Ray, T-Ray,
CT-scan, NMR (MRI), PET, STED
(Principle of USG)

18961901
In 1901 Wilhelm Konrad
Roentgen: the first
recipient of the Nobel Prize
for Physics
1896 his wifes hand, he
made the first X-ray photo,
and thus, made it possible
to look inside the human
body without surgical
intervention.
X-ray vs. T-ray!!

worldsfamouspho
tos.com

T-Ray

droidmill.com

2
0
1
4
S
T
E
D

2014

There are 2 kind of Image


Anatomical (Gross)
Tumor: Ventriculography,pneumoencephalography
Injury
Angiography

Functional
Alzheimer STED 2014 Noble Prize
Cognitive psychology: Thought identification, Mind
reading (higher metabolism area & light up on
scan

Brain CT with and without contrast


Source: X-Ray
Without Contrast: direct
With Contrast:
Only one CT contrast study
should be scheduled within a
48 hour period.
BUN & Creatinine must be
done within 72 hours of the
scan.
Nothing to eat, but clear liquid
after midnight before the scan.
cedars-sinai.edu

CT scanning of the head is typically used


to detect:
Bone abnormalities
Brain mass/tumor
Fluid collection, such as
an abcess
Hemorrhage
Hydrocephalus
Ischemic process, such
as a stroke
Trauma or fracture of the
skull

Normal
CT

http://www.seattlechildrens.org/medical-conditions/brain-nervous-system-mentalconditions/hydrocephalus/

Look at the ventricles!

Brain CT!!
Blood vessels: brightly w contrast
The bones are whiter than
the surrounding area.
(Whiter means higher
attenuation.)
Blood vessels also brightly
due to the injection of an
iodine-based contrast
agent.

Displaced Ventricles in
Brain CT

Typical scan doses


Examination

Mod from Brenner NEJM rev 2007

Typical effective dose


(mSv)

(milli rem)

Chest X-ray

0.1

10

Head CT

1.5

150

300

Abdomen CT

5.3

530

Chest CT

5.8

580

Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis CT

9.9

990

Screening mammography

CT colonography
(virtual colonoscopy)
Cardiac CT angiogram

3.6 - 8.8

360 - 880

6.7-13

670 - 1300

Barium enema

15

1500

Neonatal abdominal CT

20

2000

For comparison, survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were
exposed to an average of 40 mSv of radiation. This dose is comparable to 2-3 extensive
CT scans, and can increase the risk of cancer.

Brain tumor MRI


With contrast

fMRI of the Brain


1. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging uses radio waves
and a strong magnetic field = NMR Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance
2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is
used to measure metabolic changes in an active part
of the brain (speech, sensation, memory, thought) etc.
3. Injuries and disease, such as stroke or brain tumor,
cause functions to shift to other parts of the brain.
This 3 principles is used for planning surgery, radiation
therapy, treatment for cerebral vascular or other
interventions.

FMRI vs. fMRI?


The term "Functional MRI" (with a "capital F") can also include
other MRI techniques that are sensitive to physiologic changes
(such as changes in water motion)- EEG-PET.
FMRI identifying, investigating, and monitoring brain tumors,
cerebral vascular, and certain chronic disorders (multiple
sclerosis, dementia or seizures.
FMRI
EEG

MRI

PET

And "little f" fMRI usually refers to mapping of brain activity using
MRI.
fMRI studies are often used in planning brain surgery, since they
can help physicians monitor normal brain function as well as
any disturbed brain function (cerebral vascular, trauma, or
degenerative disease (such as Alzheimer's) on brain function.

FMRI: MRI & PET Brain

MRI, PET and CT scans of the brains of people affected by (clockwise from
top left): Alcoholism, marijuana use, multiple sclerosis, cocaine use,
Parkinson's disease, Alzehemier's disease.

11C

contrast MRI & PET

The meaning of:


Typical MRI and PET brain images of [11C]NNC112 (a)
and [11C]FLB457 in the conscious MR images were
(1.5 T). PET images were generated by summation of
image data from 37 to 64 min after injection
FDG 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (Fludeoxyglucose) make
by cyclotron
18F-FDG or FDG

What is Radio frequency, X-Ray


and Gamma-ray?
Geometrical Optics
Physical Optics
Quantum Optics

Electromagnetic wave spectrum:


Radio waves!

(From Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope


Project, http://praxis.pha.jhu.edu/.)

Optics
Geometrical optics
Deals with those optical phenomena that
are mostly easily described with straight
lines and plane geometry.
Deals with macroscopic light

Physical optics

Dealing with the wave nature of light,


Deals with electromagnetic wave

Quantum optics
Dealing with quantum aspects of light,
Deals with particle (light as photon)

The experiments of all of the various


known properties of light may be
grouped together and classified under
one of the three following heads:
Geometrical
Optics
Rectilinear
propagation
Finite velocity

Physical Optics

Quantum Optics

Diffraction
Interference

Photo-electric
effect
Compton effect

Reflection

Polarization

Atomic excitation

Refraction

Double Refraction Pair production

X-ray and CT Scan: Absorption,


Transmision Black-grey-white
1895: Roentgen
1900s: Tomography (Y: tomos=slice)
1970: CTScan (Computerized Tomography) X-ray or
CAT, PET 1975, MRI 1984
Nowadays imaging: CTScan, USG, MRI, PET, fMRI

Babys brain USG

Acranial & anencephaliy

USG Brain

Basic principle of Tomography


Collimated-X-raysbody
through the detector which
measure the transmited
intensity.
Severals points was measured,
while source and detector were
move together pass through the
body.
This instrument is turned little X-ray
source
surrounded the bodys axis
and once again scanned; many
times with interval (may be) 1o
for 180o.

Rangkaian
detectors

CT Scan: source X-Ray


Transmitted Intensity light from many points at
any scan, and any angle, were sent to
computer which reconstruct the slice image.
Slice which will be imaging is cut to many small
figure (pixel)
Any pixel represent the intensity of the
transmitted light and give a nuance of graded
grey and e.g. image from elemen 100 x 100 for
total 10 4 pixel ( 100 detector from 100 different
angles.

Several mathematic
reconstruction technique
Iteration tech.
Fourier transformation tech.
Reverse projection tech. more directly

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)


= Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(MRI) of the Head
Uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave
energy for source. In many cases an MRI provides
information that cannot be obtained from an X-ray,
ultrasound, or CT scan.
The MRI can also detect tissue damage or disease,
such as infection, inflammation, or a tumor.

NMR/MRI for Medical Area


(2003)
MRS: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for 1)
determine the structure of unknown chemical stuff
and 2) to study the binding characteristic of a known
compound

MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging to make a


image af slices organ
NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is a basic of
MRS dan MRI

MRI/NMR merupakan emmision


(pemancaran/pencurahan) imaging
MRI
Patient in strength magnetic field (> 1.5 T) were
given energy pulse short frequency of radio
wave radio signal images which recorded
from 3:
1) density of proton (H nucleus),
2) relaxation constant,
3) blood flow pattern (oxy vs. deoxy Hb)

Prepare the procedure!


MRI Use strong magnetic field
heart pacemaker
artificial heart valve
catheter
IUD
any metal plates, pins, screws or surgical staples
Tattoos
Eyeliner
Tooth fillings
Braces
hairpins, jewelry, eyeglasses,
hearing aids

Oxy vs. deoxy Hb


The principle of fMRI imaging is to take a series of images of
the brain in quick succession and to statistically analyze the
images for differences among them.
Oxy hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin are magnetically
different is exploited. Oxy Hemoglobin shows up better on MRI
images than deoxyhemoglobin; thus, oxygenated blood shows
up better. Brain areas with more blood flow have been shown to
have better visibility on MRI images (Cohen & Bookheimer, 1994)
correlated with brain activation
Other fMRI methods exploit the fact that the bulk movement of
hydrogen nuclei causes changes in the MRI image CSF flow,
blood flow, or diffusion of water through tissue.

Resonance proton: Flip & Relaxation


[Absorption & Emmission]
When the frequency of the pulsed radio beam
matches the frequency of the hydrogen atom, which
induces the protons to flip, this is called the
Resonance Frequency
Resonance in NMR is caused by the absorption of EM radiation in the
radio frequency, by protons in magnetic field (Ho) which then flip.
Flip only happen when the radio wave frequency is suitable. With
strength Ho, the frequency must be more higher (E>)
Flipped proton is also called resonanced proton
When unflipped, there are E that emmited (signal for detector)
computerized curve

Radio wave absorbed by


nuclear atom (proton/H+)
1945: Proton through nuclear spin absorb radio
wave from suitable radio frequency while places in
a strength magnetic field.
The resonance frequency from nuclear atom is
depends not only on: 1) magnetic power and 2)
atomic type, but also on 3) chemical atom of the
environment.
Nuclear spins from various nucleus could be
interfere each other, produce fine structures that is
sejumlah puncak dalam spektrum NMR

Main part of NMR spectrometer NMR

sample
U

S
Radio frequence Generator

Radio frequence Detector

Jodoh tiap signal NMR dengan


proton dalam makromolekul
= sequential assignment

1985 Wthrich: Jarak antara sejumlah besar inti hidrogen dan memakai
informasi ini dengan metode matematik bedasarkan geometri jarak untuk
menghitung struktur 3D untuk molekul. Saat ini 15-20% dari ribuan
struktur protein telah ditentukan dg NMR. Yg lain dg kristalografi sinarX, beberapa dg difraksi elektron atau difraksi neutron

PET (Positron Emission


Tomography)
Radioactive
Cyclotron to make Positron emitter
Gamma detector

Positron a pair of gamma rays


Positrons emitted by the nuclide annihilate with
atomic electrons and emit a pair of gamma rays
moving in opposite directions.
the head is surrounded by gamma detectors, the
delay between a gamma ray arriving on one side
and its partner arriving opposite is used to
calculate the position of the decay.
In this way a map of decays taking place in the
brain can be built up. If the subject is given
different stimuli-music or speech for example-the
pattern of blood flow in the brain changes

http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/42-21818506/pet-scans-show-brains-response-to-musical

PET with musical stimulation


PET scans showing the varying rates of activity
in different parts of the brains of three people
listening too music indicates the greatest activity.
The technique shows how untrained listeners
react to music more with the right, intuitive
hemisphere of the brain, white trained musicians
rely on the left, logical side of the brain.

Anterior Speech Area on PET


combined with MRI by Denise Klein
& Brenda Milner
http://neurostudyclub.mcgill.ca/feb2004/feb2004_p6.htm

Music listener vs. maestro


PET scans showing the varying rates of
activity in different parts of the brains of
three peoples listening to musics. Red
indicates the greatest activity. The
technique shows how untrained listeners
react to music more with the right, intuitive
hemisphere of the brain, while trained
musicians rely on the left, logical side of
the brain.

The PET scanner


PET is a technique that is revolutionizing
research into the activity of the brain. A patient
inhales CO containing some carbon-11 isotopes.
CO is very good at attaching itself to
haemoglobin molecules in red blood cells.
When areas of the brain are active the blood
flow to them increases, so the concentration of
carbon-11 in that part of the brain increases.
The 11C isotope of carbon is artificial and decays
by + (positron) emission.

Detector-scintillation counterphotomultiplier tubes


Within about 1 mm of its emission point a
positron will annihilate with an electron to
produce two gamma-ray photons. As the
positrons are not moving that quickly when they
annihilate with an electron, the two photons
emerge virtually back-to back, which concerves
momentum.
The patient is surrounded by a ring of
scintillation counters which detect the emerging
gamma-ray photons (scintillation counters are
photomultiplier tubes, each with its own sodium
iodide crystals)

Record the activity, but..


PET scan activity in the speech centre of
the brain
One disadvantage of the technique is that
it cannot record the activity of parts of the
brain that are constantly active only
changes in blood flow can be detected.

USG (ultrasonography)
Not an electromagnetic wave
A mechanical wave
Reflection not transmission and emission

USG: Lower freq for deeper


2

8 10 12 14 16 18MHz

Superficial structure

Deeper structure

Lower resolution Higher resolution


HIFU: 0,25-2 MHz
ESWL: 1-3 Hz
5-12 MHz

procoagulant

USG for diagnosis is a


reflection imaging
Non-electromagnetic wave imaging

Ultrasonic wave is reflected to body


interface with difference acoustic
impedance medium density and for x
velocity use

Sound
Gelombang EM dengan frekuensi < frek cah
(f cah 4-7.5 x 10 14 Hz) = 4-7,5 x 10 7 m (c=.f)
Jangkauan pendengaran manusia F audio 20-20.000
Hz (satuan frek- 1Hz=1 siklus/det) (infrasonik< 20 Hz,
ultrasonik > 20.000 Hz) Ultrasonik =/= supersonik (
v>vbunyi)
Jangkauan pendenganran orang tua < 10.000 Hz
Anjing: 50.000 Hz +, kelelawar 100.000 Hz +.
AM (Amplitudo Modulasi): 530-1600 kHz,

FM (Freq Modulasi) 88MHz & 108 MHz),


TV Amerika : 54& 88 MHz untuk kanal 2-6,
174 & 216 MHz untuk kanal 7-13,

Untuk membahas gerak


getaran perlu definisi
Simpangan: jarak x massa dari titik seimbang
pada setiap saat
Amplitudo (A): simpangan maksimum
Siklus: gerak bolak balik yang lengkap dari titik
awal kemudian kembali ke titik yang sama
Periode (T): waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk 1
siklus lengkap (T tak tergantung A)
Frekuensi: jumlah siklus per detik
f=1/T
A

T=1/f

Bila f= 5 siklus per detik;


T=1/5 detik

Ultrasound (frek > 20 kHz): tak bisa


didengar & difraksi kecil (tak
menyebar) shg bd > kecil dpt
dideteksi
Pantulan bunyi digunakan dalam banyak aplikasi untuk menentukan
jarak Sonar atau teknik pulsa-gema digunakan untuk mencari
(refleksi) atau memecah benda di bawah air (batu ginjal-interferensi).
Analisa gel yg terpantul dari berbagai struktur dan batas
lapisan di dalam Bumi menghasilkan pola karakteristik yg berguna
utk eksplorasi minyak dan mineral.

Dinding perut
Transduser

Tulang belakang

Pulsa
Gema

Gema

Scan-A:
Waktu
sebanding jarak
rambatan
Waktu
Scan-B:
Kecerahan=ke
kuatan sinyal

USG menggantikan operasi


pencarian dan prosedur lain yg
Beresiko
Menyakitkan
Mahal

Efek lain hingga saat


ini (sinar-x, laser,
gelombang mikro
berefek samping)

Difraksi (penyebaran) berkas sinar membatasi ketajaman citra

Cara bunyi terpantul =/= sinar x (digunakan dg prinsip abs, transmisi)


CT Scan

Doppler Effects
Dg menggunakan pergeseran
Doppler dari USG, digunakan
utk mengukur velocity dlm tbh
man, seperti aliran darah dan
detak jantung janin

MCA : Middle Cerebral Artery


in Transcranial Doppler
ARRS, 2004

wavelength

794

771

748

725

702

679

656

633

610

587

564

541

518

495

472

449

426

403

380

intensity

STED Microscopy

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brackett,


Pfund Series: Excitation-Emission

Nanocrystal Semiconductor

Invitrogen.com

Resonance pos & neg


http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130423/srep01707/fig_tab/srep01707_F1.html