Ozone Depletion

Atas, Bryan B. Bondoc, Christian Earvin D. Hubag, Patrick Paulo Amor C.

• The main point, ladies and gentlemen, is that OZONE DEPLETION exists!!! • This serves as an introduction to the terms needed in the following chapters

INTRODUCTION Ozone Ozone layer Ozone depletion Ultraviolet rays



• A form of oxygen gas Ozone layer • Composed of three atoms of oxygen (O3)
Ozone depletion

• Colorless • Has a harsh odor

Ultraviolet rays

• It has the ability to absorb most UV radiation

Ozone’s ability to absorb Ozone

Ozone Layer


• greatest concentration of ozone occurs at Ozone altitudes 19 - 30km above the Earth's layer surface • Ozone layer is IN the stratosphere

Ozone depletion Ultraviolet rays

• Concentration of O3 in ozone layer is roughly 10 parts per million

The stratosphere and the ozone layer

Ozone Depletion
• The thinning of the ozone layer

INTRODUCTION Ozone Ozone layer

• It can happen naturally but human depletion Ozone intervention is the main reason for ozone Ultraviolet rays depletion • Is brought about by ODC’s or Ozone Depleting Chemicals

M Monitoring Ozone O Ozone Unit measures the total amount of N • Dobson depletion is scientific and not just an environmentalists’ hoax ozone in an overhead column of the I atmosphere T O It is monitored by satellites • … measured by how thick the layer of ozone R would be if it were compressed into one layer I at 0 oC and with a pressure of 1 atm above it N G

• 0.01 mm = 1 D.U.

Ozone Hole
• Technically…. • regions where stratospheric ozone depletion is so severe that levels fall below 200 Dobson Units (D.U.)

Antarctic ozone hole
2006 record breaker hole ….. 11.4 M sq. miles

2007 average

Ultra violet rays

INTRODUCTION Ozone Ozone layer

• A form of electromagnetic energy

• Three categories of UV radiation: Ozone depletion
– UV-A, between 320 and 400 nm Ultraviolet rays – UV-B, between 280 and 320 nm – UV-C, between 200 and 280 nm

Ultra violet rays
• UV-A has the least energy


Ozone – 98.7% of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is UVA Ozone layer Ozone depletion • UVB – higher energy, breaks down O3 Ultraviolet rays – Has the ability to destroy DNA linkages

• UVC – very easily absorbed by oxygen and ozone
– Highest energy

• Mechanism of Ozone layer destruction • Chemicals that deplete the ozone layer

CAUSES ODC Mechanism CFC’s Sources

• ODC – Ozone Depleting Chemicals • ODS – Ozone Depleting Substances

CAUSES ODC’s CFC’s Mechanism Sources


• A group of compounds known as Chlorofluorocarbons
• It is

CFC others

The main source of ozone depletion

• Very stable • Insoluble in water (rain) • As a result: it can travel from the lower atmosphere up until it reaches the ozone layer


Five main CFC’s

CFC others

• CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3) • CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane- CF2Cl2) • CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane- C2F3Cl3) • CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane- C2F4Cl2) • CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane- C2F5Cl)

Other ODC
• Halons or bromofluorocarbons are Bromine containing compounds that function the same way as CFC’s but are 10-100 times more reactive • HCFC’s are the alternative to CFC but are still ODS but with a smaller lifespan
– They are also greenhouse gases

ODC CFC others

• 82% of stratospheric chlorine came from ODC • with 51% being carried there by CFC-11 and CFC-12.

ODC CFC others

Source: World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 44, Geneva, 1998.

ODC CFC others

List of ODS according to Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002

Source: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002


Table of ods part II

CFC others

Want some more?

Source: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002

Sources of ODS
• CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners • …used as solvents in cleaners (for electronic boards) • …used as a blowing agents in the production of foam (i.e., frire extinguishers) • …used as propellants in aerosols. • Some ODS are used as pesticides and fumigants

In depth ODC uses and their alternatives

Bottom line is: many man made technologies depend on the use of ODC

Natural sources of Cl
• Major volcanic eruptions can inject Cl into the stratosphere mostly in the form of HCl • …but volcanic aerosols are quickly dissolved
– Example: Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991which released 30 Megatons of debris

Amount of aerosols in the stratosphere


• CF2Cl2 ---------> Cl + CF2Cl Light energy


• As CFC reaches the stratosphere, they are Mechanism broken down by light and this process releases Cl

• Cl + O3  ClO + O2 • ClO + O  Cl + O2 O3 is converted to O2

Mechanism therefore, less O3 is available to block the UV rays sources

• Most of the chlorine comes from man made emissions such as CFC’s

Cl + O3 O2 +ClO ClO +O O2 + Cl

Take note that the ozone depleting process is a cycle as Cl can react again for as much as 100,000 times

BrO + ClO -> BrCl + O2 BrCl + hv -> Br + Cl Br + O3 -> BrO + O2 Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2 ----------------------Net: 2 O3 -> 3 O2 Bromine are 10 to 100 times more destructive than Cl Take note that: decreasing Cl also decreases Br’s destructiveness

Effects of Ozone Depletion
• This is the reason why WE SHOULD CARE

Effects of Ozone Depletion
• Damage to marine life - Smith et.al _Science_1992 found a 6-12% drop in phytoplankton productivity once their ship entered the area of the spring-time ozone hole • When over 200 agricultural plants were tested, more than half showed sensitivity to UV-B light.

• Marine wild life and ecosystem – plankton are sensitive to UV • radiation affects orientation mechanisms and motility in phytoplankton, thus: reduced survival rates for these organisms • decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development

Effects of Ozone Depletion
• Genetic damage - DNA absorbs UV-B light and the absorbed energy can break bonds in the DNA

• Skin cancers – effect of genetic damage
– 90% of the skin carcinomas are attributed to UV-B exposure
• [R.P.Wayne, Chemistry of the Atmospheres 2nd ed. Oxford 1991]

• Strong UV radiation from the Sun can cause inflammation of the cornea, the outer coating of the eyeball, leading to photokeratosis or "snow blindness“ • … permanent damage to the cornea • …dimming of the eye's lens and increased risk for cataracts • …eye cancer, conjunctivitis and pterygium

• 1% decrease in stratospheric ozone may result in 100,000 to 150,000 additional cases of blindness due to eye cataracts worldwide.

• Material damages - Increased UV-B radiation can accelerate the deterioration of plastics, wood, paper, cotton and wool (Manins et. al., 2001).

• Air pollution - as more UV reaches the lower troposphere, more high-energy EM waves will decompose oxygen and produce Ozone... Resulting to photochemical smog
» By the way, Ozone is poisonous

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency NASA Wikipedia http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk http://www.ozone.gi.alaska.edu Apologies to many others who have been forgotten

The End

The End

The End

The End

What was….is and will be…

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful