3 views

Uploaded by Docta Mathana

cryptography introduction and the history of the encryption and decryption also has types of ecrynption

- chp quiz 3
- Stream cipher Thesis
- USOR an Unobservable Secure OnDemand
- criptare muzicala
- DES and AES
- lab_2
- SMETS V3.0 Draft 4.docx
- 9528
- The Information Technology Act 2000
- Some Topics Some Topics
- Security Plus QA
- 1_Crypto
- team 4 final
- [doi 10.1007_978-3-319-48308-5_83].pdf
- The best PGP tutorial for Mac OS X, ever | Jerzy's Notes
- Security
- KeyArchivalandManagementinLonghornBeta3 Pub (1)
- Tocf5.Tocf Ssl
- PKCS V2.1 RSA Cryptography Standard
- Create a Digital Signature in ABAP

You are on page 1of 42

SIGNATURES

inject messages.

Try to fool the targeted receivers that the messages are sent by the

real person.

In vulnerable connection, to depend only on cryptography

mechanisms are inadequate.

that a message indeed come from the claimed source and

has not been altered.

Data integrity is the security service against unauthorized

modification of messages.

Data integrity in modern cryptography is closely related to,

and evolves from error-detection code.

The error-detection code is a procedure for detecting

errors which can be introduced into messages due to fault

in communications.

at the same risk as using information which contains defects due

to errors introduce in communication or data processing.

Data integrity and error-detection codes are essentially the same.

A transmitter of a message creates a checking value by

encoding some redundancy into the message to be transmitted

and attaches the checking value to the message. A receiver of the

message then verifies the correctness of the message received

using the attached checking value according to a set of rules

agreed with the transmitter.

In Error-detection code: The redundancy is encoded in such a way

that the receiver can use a maximum likelihood detector to

decide which message he should infer as having most likely been

transmitted from the possibly altered codes that were received.

In Data integrity: The redundancy is encoded in such a way that

the attached checking value will be distributed as uniform as

possible to the entire message space of the checking values to

minimize the probability for an attacker to forge a valid checking.

Like

cryptographic transformations for achieving

data integrity should also be parameterized

by keys.

Thus, in the usual sense, a correct dataintegrity verification result will also provide

the verifier with the knowledge of the

message source, that is, the principal who had

created the data integrity protection.

However, recently a notion of "data integrity

without source identification" has emerged.

This new notion is important in the study of

public key cryptosystems secure against

adaptive attackers.

scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message

or document.

A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that

the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not

altered in transit.

Commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions,

and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or

tampering.

A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms:

from a set of possible private keys. The algorithm outputs the private key

and a corresponding public key.

A signing algorithm that, given a message and a private key, produces a

signature.

A signature verifying algorithm that, given a message, public key and a

signature, either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity.

Digital

certificate

Is

used primarily over the internet and its used in

either identification or encryption.

Identification :

Proves identity (verifies the sender of the information).

Grant the right to access information or other services online.

Includes insuring the identity of all parties involved in a transaction.

Encryption:

Used in secure web transactions.

Contain the key used to encrypt the data.

Non-repudiation:

A conventional digital signature uses asymmetric

cryptography to create a tamper-evident seal which enables

determining through a simple test whether data has been

altered since the signature was applied, and also the identity

of the private key that was used to encrypt the signature.

More recently, digital signatures are being created with

symmetric cryptography based upon a key that is derived

from the identity of the user and is known only to a trusted

server that both creates and verifies the signatures and

generates proof of signature certificates when queried to

verify a signature.

Such symmetric digital signatures share a syntax similar to Message

Authentication Codes ("MAC's")

Symmetric digital signatures have additional advantages over

asymmetric digital signatures of being less processer-intensive than

asymmetric digital signatures and thus are more efficient and cheaper

to maintain.

Elgamal signature

computing discrete logarithms.

Taher ElGamal.

authenticity of a message sent over an insecure channel.

different in details, but have the same basic idea.

A trapdoor function is a function that is easy to compute in one

direction, yet believed to be difficult to compute in the opposite

direction (finding its inverse) without special information, called

the "trapdoor". Examples: RSA and Rabin

Trapdoor functions are widely used in cryptography.

performs the functions of both digital signature and encryption.

Offers three frequently used security:

message then followed by an encryption.

It own two problems:

supposed to fulfill the functionalities of digital signature and

encryption in a single logical step and can effectively decrease

the computational costs and communication overheads in

comparison with the traditional signature-then-encryption

schemes.

Signcryption provides the properties of both digital signatures

and encryption schemes in a way that is more efficient than

signing and encrypting separately.

Correctness: Any signcryption scheme should be correctly

verifiable.

Efficiency: The computational costs and communication costs of

a signcryption scheme should be smaller than those of the best

known signature-then-encryption schemes with the same

provided functionalities.

Security: A signcryption scheme should simultaneously fulfill the

security attributes of an encryption scheme and those of a digital

signature.

Such additional properties mainly include:

Public verifiability and Forward secrecy of message confidentiality while

the others do not provide them.

applications while the others may not require them.

clear

have demonstrated exhaustive key search

attacks

can

blocks

US NIST issued call for ciphers in 1997

15 candidates accepted in Jun 98

5 were shortlisted in Aug-99

Rijndael was selected as the AES in Oct2000

issued as FIPS PUB 197 standard in Nov2001

private

128-bit data, 128/192/256-bit keys

stronger & faster than Triple-DES

active life of 20-30 years (+ archival use)

provide full specification & design details

both C & Java implementations

NIST have released all submissions &

unclassified analyses

initial

cost in terms of computational efficiency

algorithm & implementation characteristics

final

criteria:

criteria

general security

ease of software & hardware implementation

implementation attacks

flexibility (in en/decrypt, keying, other factors)

Use a combination of substitution and a couple of

transpositions approaches together with a keying

function.

Consists of n rounds of the above said

combination, where n depends on the key length

(i.e. unlike DES, the length of AES key varies

amongst 3 types).

Use block encryption where 1 block is a fixed size

of 128 bits.

Use symmetric encryption where the size of a key

can either be 128 bits (still double the size of DES

64 bits of key!!), 192 bits, or 256 bits, where the

number of n rounds are 9, 11 and 13 respectively.

designed

by Rijmen-Daemen in Belgium

has 128/192/256 bit keys, 128 bit data

an iterative rather than feistel cipher

operates on entire data block in every round

designed

to be:

speed and code compactness on many CPUs

design simplicity

data

key is expanded to array of words

has 9/11/13 rounds in which state undergoes:

byte substitution (1 S-box used on every byte)

shift rows (permute bytes between groups/columns)

mix columns (subs using matrix multipy of groups)

add round key (XOR state with key material)

view as alternating XOR key & scramble data bytes

initial

round

with fast XOR & table lookup implementation

1.

2.

key expanded into array of 32-bit words

1.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

has a simple structure

only AddRoundKey uses key

AddRoundKey a form of Vernam cipher

each stage is easily reversible

decryption uses keys in reverse order

decryption does recover plaintext

final round has only 3 stages

individual 4*4 matrix of bytes (i.e. a total of 16

matrices)

Byte1

Byte5

Byte9

Byte13

Byte2

Byte6

Byte10

Byte14

Byte3

Byte7

Byte11

Byte15

Byte4

Byte8

Byte12

Byte16

by substituting each byte in a block based

on a substitution table.

uses one table of 16x16 bytes containing a

permutation of all 256 8-bit values

each byte of state is replaced by byte

indexed by row (left 4-bits) & column

(right 4-bits)

eg.

column 5

which has value {2A}

designed

attacks

1st

row is unchanged

2nd row does 1 byte circular shift to left

3rd row does 2 byte circular shift to left

4th row does 3 byte circular shift to left

decrypt

since state is processed by columns, this

step permutes bytes between the columns

each byte is replaced by a value dependent

on all 4 bytes in the column

effectively a matrix multiplication in GF(28)

using prime poly m(x) =x8+x4+x3+x+1

again processed by column (though

effectively a series of byte operations)

inverse for decryption identical

since

a

requires other stages for complexity / security

array of 44/52/60 32-bit words

start by copying key into first 4 words

then loop creating words that depend on

values in previous & 4 places back

in

1st word in 4 has rotate + S-box + XOR round

constant on previous, before XOR 4th back

design criteria included

knowing

invertible transformation

fast on wide range of CPUs

use round constants to break symmetry

diffuse key bits into round keys

enough non-linearity to hinder analysis

simplicity of description

since steps done in reverse

but can define an equivalent inverse cipher

with steps as for encryption

but

with a different key schedule

swap

swap mix columns & add (tweaked) round key

byte

256 entries

shift rows is simple byte shift

add round key works on byte XORs

mix columns requires matrix multiply in GF(28)

which works on byte values, can be simplified to

use table lookups & byte XORs

redefine

can precompute 4 tables of 256-words

then each column in each round can be

computed using 4 table lookups + 4 XORs

at a cost of 4Kb to store tables

implementation was a key factor in its

selection as the AES cipher

- chp quiz 3Uploaded byEnigma2u
- Stream cipher ThesisUploaded byJegadish Kumar
- USOR an Unobservable Secure OnDemandUploaded byKalyan Sundaram
- criptare muzicalaUploaded byIoana Pînzariu
- DES and AESUploaded byRiaz Ahmed
- lab_2Uploaded byTrí Minh Nguyễn
- SMETS V3.0 Draft 4.docxUploaded byshafi hasmani
- 9528Uploaded byChris Nash
- The Information Technology Act 2000Uploaded byprasanna deosarkar
- Some Topics Some TopicsUploaded bySyed Ariful Islam Emon
- Security Plus QAUploaded bystakoff
- 1_CryptoUploaded byManuel Aleixo Leiria
- team 4 finalUploaded byapi-19893402
- [doi 10.1007_978-3-319-48308-5_83].pdfUploaded byoldy shamir
- The best PGP tutorial for Mac OS X, ever | Jerzy's NotesUploaded byferrisiam
- SecurityUploaded byPukhtoon Yar
- KeyArchivalandManagementinLonghornBeta3 Pub (1)Uploaded bysabeelshakir
- Tocf5.Tocf SslUploaded bybobby brigante
- PKCS V2.1 RSA Cryptography StandardUploaded byManikandan K Krishnankutty
- Create a Digital Signature in ABAPUploaded byAdaikalam Alexander Rayappa
- MELJUN CORTES CRYPTOGRAPHY Elements LecturesUploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- The_Rules_on_Electronic_Evidence.pdfUploaded byJoseph Adrian Toquero
- Kerr_Daniel_Thesis.pdfUploaded byBruno Giacomelli
- RSA LectureUploaded byআশিষকুমারঘোষ
- CIS410 U1 ReviewUploaded byAnonymous QRQvDk
- Draft Ee Signature Rules 2014 June 27Uploaded byhbhar
- ref 1Uploaded byArun Bansal
- Volume1.pdfUploaded byVarun Guggilam
- Presentation document of DAC-MACUploaded bysumalraj
- P637701Uploaded byAntu Stephen

- HP C4583 Basic GuideUploaded byPaper-Face
- JAMES A. HALL - Accounting Information System Chapter 16Uploaded byJoe VaTa
- Bosh PRS‑CSR Call Station RemoteUploaded bypitanje1991
- HPE VMware RecipeUploaded byontt
- hp msa 1040 2040 best practices guide.pdfUploaded bysushantg1
- rtpUploaded bysuresh1virdi
- Cisco 789Uploaded byKgahlisho Darky
- SRS exampleUploaded byNavajith Mohanan
- Reguli Radio ComunicareUploaded bydanut1900
- Engine Service Tool Reference ListUploaded byAlberto De Los Rios Galan
- 20765B ENU CompanionUploaded bymiamikk204
- ContactCenter_ServicePacksCompatibility_HotfixApplicabilityNovember2011AACC6XUploaded bymohzim_interactcrm
- Dynamic Subtitles Translator - Translate & Edit Subtitle Files171038Uploaded bydhanalakshmanan 2001
- A Secure Self-Deletion Method for Data on Cloud StorageUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Sabre Interface GuideUploaded byDuy Hung Tran
- CDMA BTS Power BudgetUploaded bySudipta Das
- AHD DVR User manual-1603.pdfUploaded byRosemberg Trujillo
- Peering_HT8XX_with_GXW41xx.pdfUploaded byLeonardus
- EMUA 02 Product Description(01)(PDF) EnUploaded byTarek El Deghedy
- TD 211-1-ENGUploaded byElizh
- E.shdsL Dual 2-Wire Repeater 239 SRUUploaded byasdf
- IDMA.pdfUploaded byStephan Rodriguez
- G7M-DR30AUploaded byszjenter
- Parameters for Querying LTE Complaint Analysis Support ReportsUploaded byelatbarawi
- Veritas Cluster ConceptUploaded byhalkasti
- VO2_NRTUploaded bysat_ks
- IVCSeriesSmallPLCProgrammingManual (1)Uploaded byTrần Nhật Vương
- RC Guideline Specs List Updated July 06Uploaded byYam Balaoing
- [TUTORIAL] Interrupt Driven TWI Interface for AVR (Part 1_ MT_MR) _ ChrisHerringUploaded bymuthukumar_eee3659
- Ejercicio Vlan Stp Root Vtp SeguridadUploaded byMonica Quiros