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Non-Metalic Materials

selection

Presented By

NON METALLIC MATERIALS

Contents

1) Types of materials.
2) Selection of materials and its criteria.
3) Non-metallic Materials definition.
4) Various types of non metalic materials.

1) ceramics
2) polymers
3) composites

5) References
6) conclusion.

TYPES OF MATERIALS

Properties of metal and non-metals

SELECTION OF MATERIALS

Selection of material for the machine component is one of the most


important steps in the process of machine design.

The following factor should be considered while selecting the material

Availability- The material should be readily available in the market ,in


large enough quantity to meet the requirement

Cost- For every application, there is limiting cost beyond which the
designer cannot go. It is likely that the cost of material might be low, but
the processing may involve costly machine operation.

Mechanical properties- The important mechanical properties of materials


from the considerations of design are Strength, rigidity, toughness,
resilience, frictional properties , wear resistance, creep characteristics,
corrosion resistance, hardness etc.

These properties are measured in terms of following


quantities

NON METALLIC MATERIAL


Non-metallic

Materials - Materials that do not

have the properties of, or do not contain, metal and that are
able to combine with hydrogen to form stable compounds,
acids, acidic oxides, and anions.

Non-metal

Ceramics

Organic polymers

Composite

But Why Non-Metals Materials ?


Corrosion Resistance

Products molded in non metal are more weather resistant than


fabricated metal products.

Non-metals will not corrode and can be designed to


accommodate many climatic conditions. Special additives
may be added to the plastic resin to combat failure due to
high exposure to UV.

Chemical Resistance

Since Non-metals is impervious to many chemical compounds,


plastic is an ideal material for a wide variety of solution tanks.

Solar Non-metals has expertise in manufacturing solution tanks


for the agricultural, paper, medical and turf industries.

Strength

Non-metals parts may be designed to be impact and dent resistant.

Parts can be reinforced with core - through and kiss-offs for added
strength.

Economical

Non-metals is lighter weight for better fuel economy and cheaper to


manufacture than metal parts.

One of the great features of rotational molding is the ability to


convert large numbers of assembled components into a single
functional plastic part. This not only eliminates assembly time and
cost, but can also result in a more functional part with better
economics.

Aesthetics

Since colour is part of the molded piece, no secondary painting


operations are necessary. The result: a uniform, maintenance free
and cost effective colour for your part.

Graphics can be made to your specifications and molded into the


part, which protects the graphic from ever coming off.

CeramicsThe word ceramic is described from Greek, Keramos through


the group of materials now so described includes glass,
products, cements, and plasters, some abrasive and cutting
tool materials, building materials such as bricks, tiles and drain
pipes, various electrical insulation materials etc.

The term ceramics is applied to a range of inorganic


materials of widely varying uses. generally these materials
these materials are non metallic and in most cases have been
treated at a high temperature at some stage during
manufacture.

Ceramics materials can be classified conveniently into four


main groups1) Amorphous ceramics.
2) crystalline ceramics.
3) Bonded ceramics .
4) cements.

Types of ceramics

Amorphous CeramicsThese are substances referred to generally as glasses . They


include those such as obsidian which occurs naturally and glasses
used for the manufacturing of bottles, windows, and lenses.

Crystalline CeramicsThese may be single phase materials like magnesium oxide or


aluminium oxide or various mixtures of materials such as these. In
addition some carbides and nitrides belongs to this groups.

Bonded CeramicsMaterials in which individual crystals are bonded together by a


glassy matrix as in large number of products derived from day.

Cementscements a number of these arte crystalline but some may


contain both crystalline and amorphous.

Properties of ceramic materials


1) Optical properties- many types of glasses have been used for the
production of windows and optical lenses. A number of special
glasses have also been employed for selective transmission or
absorption of particular wavelength such as infrared and
ultraviolet.
2) Thermal properties- ceramics posses favourable properties at high
temperature and under oxidation conditions.
3) Electrical conductivity- Although many ceramics are insulators of
them of course conduct electricity quite well at room
temperature and constitute a very special class of semiconductors.
e.g.)porcelain, steatite, forsterite, and alumina etc.
4) Mechanical propertiesa) Non-ductile stress concentration has little or no effect on
compressive strength.

b) The compressive strength several times more than the tensile


strength.
c) Temp rigidity is high.
d) The ceramic materials posses ionic and covalent bonds which
impact high modulus of elasticity etc.
e) Below recrystallisation temperature, non-crystalline ceramics are
fully brittle.
f) In case of alloy consisting of two or metal, each phase many have
appreciable difference of coefficient of thermal expansion
which generate stress. This stress may then cause the metal to
fail.

Application of ceramic materials1)

Ceramic materials are used in electrical and electronics


industry because of their high electrical resistivity , dielectrical
strength and magnetic properties suitable for applications such
as magnets for speakers.

2)

3)

The capability of ceramics to maintain their strength and


stiffness at elevated temperatures makes them very attractive
for high temperature applications.
High resistance to wear makes them suitable for applications
such as cylinder liners, bushings, seals, and bearing.

4) Internal combustion engines are only about 30% efficient, but


with the use of ceramic components their operating
performance can be improved by at least 30%
5)

Ceramic materials have been used successfully especially in


gasoline and diesel engine components and as rotors, are
silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and partially stabilised zircon.

6) High speed components for machine tools.


7) Ceramics are also used to coat metal which may be done to
reduce wear, prevent corrosion and a thermal barrier.
8) Silicon-nitride ceramics are also used as ball bearing and
rollers. because of their strength and inertness.

Examples of ceramics materials

Until the 1950s, the most important ceramic materials were


(1) pottery, bricks and tiles,
(2) cements and
(3) glass. A composite material of ceramic and metal is known
as cermet.

1.

Barium titanate (often mixed with strontium titanate)


displays ferroelectricity, meaning that its mechanical, electrical, and
thermal responses are coupled to one another and also historydependent. It is widely used in electromechanicaltransducers,
ceramic capacitors, and data storage elements. Grain
boundary conditions can create PTC effects in heating elements.

Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, a high-temperature


superconductor

Boron nitride is structurally isoelectronic to carbon and takes


on similar physical forms: a graphite-like one used as
a lubricant, and a diamond-like one used as an abrasive.

Earthenware used for domestic ware such as plates and


mugs.

Ferrite is used in the magnetic cores of


electrical transformers and magnetic core memory.

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was developed at the United


States National Bureau of Standards in 1954. PZT is used as
an ultrasonic transducer, as its piezoelectric properties
greatly exceed those of Rochelle salt.

Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is an unconventional


superconductor.

Porcelain is used for a wide range of household and industrial


products.

Sialon (Silicon Aluminium Oxynitride) has high strength;


resistance to thermal shock, chemical and wear resistance,
and low density. These ceramics are used in non-ferrous
molten metal handling, weld pins and the chemical industry.

Silicon carbide (SiC) is used as a susceptor in microwave


furnaces, a commonly used abrasive, and as
a refractory material.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is used as an abrasive powder.

Steatite (magnesium silicates) is used as an electrical


insulator.

Titanium carbide Used in space shuttle re-entry shields and


scratchproof watches.

Uranium oxide (UO2), used as fuel in nuclear reactors.

Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu3O7-x), another high


temperature superconductor.

Zinc oxide (ZnO), which is a semiconductor, and used in the


construction of varistors.

Zirconium dioxide (zirconia), which in pure form undergoes


many phase changes between room temperature and
practical sintering temperatures, can be chemically
"stabilized" in several different forms. Its high oxygen ion
conductivity recommends it for use in fuel cells and
automotive oxygen sensors. In another
variant, metastable structures can impart transformation
toughening for mechanical applications; most ceramic
knife blades are made of this material.

Partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ) is much less brittle than other


ceramics and is used for metal forming tools, valves and liners,
abrasive slurries, kitchen knives and bearings subject to severe
abrasion

Day to Day life uses

Polymers

Polymers means many units (poly=many, mer=units) is


composed of a large number of repetitive called monomers
or simple molecules.

Thus a polymers is made up of thousands of monomers joined


chemically together to form a large molecules.

It has been observed that each molecule of polymer is either


a long chain or a network of repetitive units or monomers.

Classification of polymers
1) Thermoplastic polymers.
2) Thermosetting polymers.

A) Thermoplastic polymers1)

Thermoplastic polymers are the polymers which become soft


and deformable when heated, which is characteristic of linear
polymeric molecules.

2)

Thermoplastic materials are similar to metals that again ductility


a high temperatures. It has been noted that, as with metal, the
ductility of thermoplastics polymers is reduced by cooling.

3)

These polymers are noted in engineering polymers, which retain


good strength and stiffness up to 150-175 degree Celsius.

4)

Although polymers can not, in general, be expected to


duplicate fully the mechanical behaviour of traditional metal
alloy, a major effort is made to produce some polymers with
sufficient strength and stiffness to be serious candidates for
structural applications once dominated by metal.

5)

It has been estimated that industry has developed more than


half a million engineering polymers part design part design
specifying nylon.

B) Thermosetting polymers1)

Thermosetting polymers are the polymers which are the


opposite of thermoplastics. They become hard and rigid when
heating.

2)

Common thermo-setting polymers which is subdivided into two


categories, thermosetting and elastomers. In this case,
thermosets refers to materials that share with the engineering
polymers.

3)

Significant strength and stiffness so as to be common Metal


substitutes. However , thermosets have the disadvantages of
not being recyclable and in general, having less variable
techniques.

4)

In addition to the many applications found. Such as films


foams and coatings. The adhesive serves to join the surfaces of
two solids by secondary faces similar to those between
molecular chain in thermoplastics.

mechanical properties of polymers


Materials

Specific
gravity

Tensile strength

Compressive
strength

polyamide

1.04-1.14

70

50-90

Low density
polythene

0.92-0.94

7-20

acetal

1.41-1.42

55-70

polyurethane

1.21-1.26

35-60

25-80

Teflon

2.14-2.20

10-25

10-12

C) Synthetic Rubbers

Synthetic rubbers or elastomers are manufactured from raw materials


such as coke, limestone, petroleum, natural gas, salt, alcohol, ammonia,
coal tar etc.

We can say that the processing of synthetic rubbers involved


approximately the same steps as that of natural rubber. moreover, some
of the properties of the synthetic rubbers are better than those of natural
rubbers.

Example, some synthetic rubbers are more resistant to sunlight than the
natural rubbers. Similarly , some synthetic rubbers have greater solvent
resistance and other have greater elasticity than that of natural rubber.

Some important synthetic rubbers are1)silicon rubbers


4)butadiene rubbers
etc.

2)polyurethane rubbers
5)butyl rubbers

3)nitrite rubbers
6)polychloroprenes

Properties of engineering polymers

The following are the properties of engineering polymers-

1)

Polymers have good corrosion resistance.

2)

Low density

3)

Low co-efficient of friction.

4)

Temperature resistance.

5)

Poor tensile strength.

6)

Good mouldability.

7)

Modulus of elasticity.

8)

Light weight.

9)

Polymers are good thermal and electrical insulators.

10)

Good resistance to chemicals.

11)

High coefficient of thermal expansion.

Application of polymers
1)

Several inorganic materials have structure composed of


building blocks connected in chain and network
configurations.

2)

The rear quarter panel on this sports car was a pioneering


application of an engineering polymers in a traditional
structural metal application.

3)

In automotive industry engineering polymers are used.

4)

Consumer and industrial products made of polymers include


food and beverage containers, packing, housewares,
textiles, medical devices foam, paints, safety, shields and
toys.

5)

Relative humidity is a design consideration for the use of


nylons.

Applications of Polymers

Day to Day uses of Polymers

3) Composite materials

Composite materials comprising two or more different


materials bonded together having combined properties of
constituents are called as composites.

In its simplest form composites consists of two independent


and dissimilar materials.

The common example of composites used in everyday life are


plywood, vehicle tyres etc. plywood is the composites of thin
sheets of wood with grains of alternate sheets perpendicular
to each other and bonded together by a polymer in between
them.

Classification of composite materials

Properties of composite materials


1)

The properties such as strength resistance to heat or some other


properties of composite materials are better than the properties
of the individual materials from which they are made.

2)

The specific strength is sometimes referred to as the strength to


weight ratio.

3)

Composite materials have stiffness, toughness, creep resistance.

4)

Properties like density and heat capacity depend on the


amount of each phase and are independent of microstructure.

5)

Properties like elastic modulus, thermal and electrical


conductivities depends upon geometry of the constituents as
well as to their volume fraction.

composite materials

Carbon-

carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber. Carbon fiber is a


material consisting of fibers about 5-10m in diameter and
composed mostly of carbon atom.

Glassfiber glass also called glass reinforce plastic. Glass fiber


Reinforced plastic is a fiber reinforced polymer made of a
plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers of glass.

AramidAramid fiber a class of heat resistant and strong synthetic


fibers. They are used in aerospace and military application.

Application of composite materials


1)

Composite materials to be used in certain application like


space vehicles.

2)

Aircrafts.

3)

Rockets.

4)

High pressure vessels.

5)

Building construction.

6)

Aerospace.

7)

Fuel efficient automobiles.

Application of composite materials


1) Automotive Industry

In the automotive industry, the physical properties of long glass fibre


thermoplastic composites and (SMC) sheet moulding compound make these
materials ideal for a wide range of components where form and structure are
required. Examples are:

Wheel tubs

Under body noise shields

Seat frames

Battery trays

Load floors

Body panels

Under engine covers

Reinforcement beams

2) Building and Construction

In building and construction industries, the insulation properties of


SMC and Bulk moulding compound (BMC) have definite
advantages over traditional materials, for such uses as:

Roof tiles

Shower bases

Computer access flooring systems

Exterior door panels

SMC and BMC provide a relatively higher degree of design freedom


than traditional materials, without surrendering structural properties.
These compounds are non-slip, will resist water absorption and
provide good electrical, fire-retardant and corrosion-resistance
propertiesmaking them a favourite right across the building sector.

3) Food Processing

The food processing sector employs SMC because of its bioinert properties, which make it ideal for:

1) Starch trays
2) Storage and container systems

Food-grade approved, SMC can replace polymers and


timber, resulting in longer life and subsequently lower lifecycle
costs. While traditional materials tend to chip, break or jam in
process machinery, SMC products last longer and are
operational unaffected.

4)

Electrical, Electronic and Telecommunications


Applications

In electrical, electronic and telecommunications applications, both Bulk


moulding compound (BMC) and SMC are ideal for high-volume
production. These compounds often take the place of MDF and
phenolic laminates for:

Enclosures

Switchgear components

Circuit boards

Busbar support insulators

Antenna radomes or shrouds

Insulating panels

Inherently good electrical and fire-retardant properties, strength,


corrosion-resistance and low water absorption characteristics make
these compounds ideal for use in these applications. Their compression
moulding manufacturing processes also allow the production of small
complex shapes in high volumes.

Day to Day uses of composite

References
1) Bhandari, V. B. Machine Design data book, Tata McGraw
Hill Publication Co. Ltd.
2) Material Science & Metallurgy For Engineers, Dr. V.D.
Kodgire & S. V. Kodgire,Everest Publication.
3) Engineering Metallurgy, Higgins R. A., Viva books Pvt. Ltd.,
2004.
4) Material Science & Engg. Raghvan V., Prentice Hall of India
, New Delhi. 2003.