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You are on page 1of 39

Statics is a fundamental subject in

engineering.

It underpins much of the design

and analysis you will conduct later

L

W

For example.

aircraft structures

A, B and C pillars for cars

Programming and control of

robotic/automated systems

steady flight

Image courtesy of Australian Defence Department.

Introduction

MIET2097 - Statics: Weeks 1 - 6

MIET2097 Dynamics Weeks 7-12

Dr. A. Bourmistrov

Email: e40018@ems.rmit.edu.au

Course Overview

Week

Topics

2D Forces and Moments

2D Equilibrium

2D Equlibrium

Truss Analysis: Method of Joints

Class Test #1: During Self Directed Study Session

Method of Sections

Friction

Class Test #2: During Self Directed Study Session

Centroids

Class Test #3: During Self Directed Study Session

7 - 12

Statics Midsemester Test: Further details later.

3

Assessment

Total value

Comments

Tests

5% x 3 = 15

Truss lab

5%

During the self directed study sessions

TBA

Midsemester Test

30%

Closed Book + formula sheet

Dynamics total 50%

To be discussed later

Course information

Prescribed textbook

R.C. Hibbeler, Engineering mechanics statics and dynamics Edition 12

You will need Edition 12

Online classroom

myrmitstudies

On the Blackboard there are other learning resources: tutorial problems,

past exam papers, lecture notes

Use www.masteringengineering.com for practice

Includes online textbook and extra problems as well

For every 12 credit points, we expect you to do 10 hours of study: including

contact hours

For Engineering mechanicsthis means 4 hours of private study every

week

What is Statics?

Newtons First Law

An object in static equilibrium:

direction of motion

Newtons Second Law

STATICS

DYNAMICS

F=ma=0

F=ma0

EQUILIBRIUM

ACCELERATION

6

Units (Homework)

Significant Figures, Rounding, Prefixes (Homework)

Analysing engineering structures

From the complex to the simple(r)

The Free Body Diagram

Practice Problems

Vectors and Scalars

Forces as vectors

Force Resultants

Assumptions used in statics

Sliding vectors

If we have a plane, or a car or a welding robot, how do we

analyse the forces acting on such complex structures?

Author Unknown,

Aeroelastic Wing (AAW), Dec 15, 2004, public domain,

Accessed 27/09/2010

http://www.directindustry.com/prod/fan

uc-robotics-europe/arc-welding-robot32007-162232.html, Accessed

27/9/2010

There are four main things we, as engineers, need to do when analysing

structures:

Measure the external forces acting on a body and ensure our designs are strong

enough to carry them (solid mechanics)

Calculate the strength of supports to carry these external forces (statics)

Look at the links/joins between different parts of structures and work out how strong

those joins have to be (statics, solid mechanics and design)

Look at how forces are transmitted through structures (solid mechanics and design)

Author Unknown,

http://ultimateautos.blogspot.com/2010/04/volkswagen-jettasedan-2010.html Accessed 27/09/2010

L

W

http://www.directin

dustry.com/prod/fa

nuc-roboticseurope/arcwelding-robot32007162232.html,

Accessed

27/9/2010

9

Image courtesy of Australian Defence Department.

We can perform experiments to measure the forces on our

structures:

Aviation Blog, Wing ultimate load test complete on 787, in

Aviation Week, 29th March, 2010, Accessed 27th Sept 2010

Parker, Car Safety Pictures Gallery, Picture by: Bill Pugliano/Getty Images,

Accessed 28th Sept 2010

http://www.nasaimages.org/luna/servlet/det

ail/nasaNAS~5~5~22484~127038:FIDORover accessed 28th Sept 2010, 4th Jan

1999 (photo taken from JPL collection),

NASA Great Images in Nasa Collection,

public domain

what kind of supports/joins we need and how strong these have

to be?

10

In estimating the support forces required to keep a structure

stable, we:

Make assumptions

For our analysis in statics we will assume all structures act as rigid

bodies (if a force is applied to a structure, it retains its shape)

Make approximations

What is p equal to? What is g equal to? What is sinq equal to?

Make simplifications

These steps allow us to go from something really complex, to

something we can do rough calculations on. Once initial calcs

are performed we can move to more complex models & calcs.

11

How do we go from a structure, which is really very complicated to

something a bit simpler?

Assuming we can now estimate or measure the

loads (forces) an engineering structure can

withstand, the next steps are to:

Learn how to simplify our structures

Learn how we can model the connection points

These are things we will now learn about in Statics

12

We start off with a car:

to see if that makes it easier

Motor Vehicle Structures: concepts and Fundamentals, ButterworthHeinemans 2001, Brown, Robertson. Serpento, pp 22, 84, 85, 188

Maybe not!!

We need to be able to simplify our structure, so we can work out how strong

it needs to be

13

So, for example if we were interested in calculating the forces on

our shock absorbers/suspension system, we can model the car as

a whole

In 3 dimensions

In 2 dimensions

Butterworth-Heinemans 2001, Brown, Robertson. Serpento, pp 68, 69

14

Simplifying Structures & Loads

Once we have simplified our structure, we can apply our measured loads and

begin analysis

Bending loads

now..

Fpt = loads on the power train

Fpr = rear passenger load

Fl = luggage load

R = reaction forces produced by the suspension

need to be examined in

both the dynamic and the

static cases

Butterworth-Heinemans 2001, Brown, Robertson.

Serpento, pp 68, 69

15

What we have just done is draw what is called a free body diagram

Free body diagrams form the basis for our computational modelling

In a Free body diagram we:

- Draw a schematic representation of the OUTLINE of the body or system

- internal forces and features are excluded

- forces and moments acting on the body are represented in a simple way

without losing any important information: idealisation and assumptions.

body diagrams, to understand loading

and to make our analysis easier!

16

We need to be able to practice drawing free body

diagrams to ensure we:

Correctly identify all the forces acting on a structure

Are aware of the assumptions we use in identifying those

forces

Are aware of mating parts (see first example)

Are able to specify the types of joints and supports

needed to keep a structure stable

17

Before we can look at 3D structures, we will examine 2D

structures

Before we can look at 2D structures, we need to examine

what your text calls particles

We will draw some free body diagrams (F.B.Ds) of particles

first and then move on to 2D systems

Once we have learnt a bit about FBDs we will then consider

how we can model forces and loads which our structures

experience.

Then we can apply loads to our free body diagrams and do

some real engineering!

18

Taken from, Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 12th Edition in SI Units, Statics Study Pact, Free-Body Diagram Workbook, Peter Schiavone, R.C Hibbeler, Pearson, 2010, pp86

What would the free body diagram of the drum look like?

What does that tell us about mating parts?

19

Taken from, Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 12th Edition in SI Units, Statics Study Pact, Free-Body Diagram Workbook, Peter Schiavone, R.C Hibbeler, Pearson, 2010, pp86

20

Taken from, Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 12th Edition in SI Units, Statics Study Pact, Free-Body Diagram Workbook, Peter Schiavone, R.C Hibbeler, Pearson, 2010, p115

21

We can now simplify our structures

How do we represent forces on our FBDs in a way

which will allow us to do some maths?

We represent forces and moments, as VECTORS

22

Vectors and scalars

Vector quantities specify a magnitude and direction

Scalars quantities specify only magnitude

The following quantities are often used in engineering analysis.

Which are vectors and which are scalars?

a) Mass

e) Force

b) Velocity

f) Acceleration

g) Length

c) Weight

h) Displacement

d) Area

23

2D Vectors

In two dimensions we use the x and y (Cartesian) axes.

y

V

magnitude and an angle

j

i

24

Components of a vector

Vectors can be resolved (or split) into components along

perpendicular axes.

The x and y components of V are:

Vx = 6 units and Vy = 5 units (or as 6i + 5j)

y

V

with the positive x-axis via:

tan q

Vy

x

Vx

Vy

Vx

magnitude of V?

tan q 1.2

q 50.2

25

Vectors Example 1

Given that F1 =2.5N in the x-dirn and 4.3N in the y-dirn (2.5i + 4.3j N):

Find the magnitude of F1 and

the angle between this vector and the horizontal (x) axis.

y

F1

F2

4.3N

2.5N

x

26

Vectors Example 2

Find the scalar components of F2 parallel to the horizontal (x)

and vertical (y) axes. Then express F2 in Cartesian notation.

y

F1

F2=10N

60

x

27

To find the sum (or resultant) of two vectors, their x and y scalar

components are added as follows:

y

60

F2=10N

x

28

Find the resultant force, F, of F1 and F2.

Given that F1= 1.5i + 2.3j

State the magnitude and orientation of F.

y

F

F2=10N

5

F1

13

12

x

29

The screw eye is

subjected to two forces, F1

and F2. Determine the

magnitude and direction of

the resultant force.

30

Parallelogram Law

Unknown: magnitude of

FR and angle

31

Parallelogram Law

Trigonometry

Unknown: magnitude of

FR and angle

Law of Cosines

10000 22500 30000 0.4226 212.6 N 213N

FR

Law of Sines

39.8 15

54.8

150 N 212 .6 N

150 N

0.9063

sin q

212 .6 N

32

q 39 .8

33

Example 2-29

34

Example 2-15

35

Do not deform

In reality, all materials deform under applied load.

If material is very rigid and force is not large, the deformation is very

small and can be neglected.

F

Rigid

Deformable

MIET2097 - Statics.

36

Our assumption means that when we want to calculate the

effect of a force at a point which lies on the line of action of that

force, we can take a short-cut

F

F

Q

O

-F

Q

F

can run anywhere along their tracks,

their line of action.

37

Principle of transmissibility

RIGID BODY ASSUMPTION allows us to treat an applied force as a

SLIDING VECTOR

Force can SLIDE along its LINE OF ACTION without altering its

external effect on the body

Known as the principle of transmissibility.

F

F

38

For each topic, you will have practice questions

1.Buy a copy of Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 12th Edition

2.REGISTER at the website:

www.masteringengineering.com

Click on the student tab

Click on the yes I have an access code and type in the access code listed in the

front of your paper copy of the textbook.

The course ID is MIET20970512. This is the course you need to enrol into on the

mastering engineering website

You will be identified on the system by your RMIT student number

You will need to choose your own password.

39

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