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Department of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
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P. Srinivasa Rao
Lecturer
Electronics & Communication Engg.
Andhra Polytechnic, Kakinada
III semester
Digital Electronics
CM-305
Counters & Registers
50mts
Synchronous Counter
PPT. Diagrams
CM305.52

OBJECTIVES
On completion of this period, you would be
able to Know
Operation Of 4 bit synchronous counter
Changing of output state according to input

Timing diagram of synchronous counter

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Recap
Logic diagram of 4-bit synchronous
counter

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The basic operation can be illustrated from its


timing diagram

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Note the following :


QA changes on each clock from its original state to final
state and vice-versa.
If QA=1 and a clock pulse occurs, FF2 is in the toggle
mode.

When QA=0, FF2 is in no change mode and remains in


its present state.
If QA=QB=1 then FF3 output QC is made to change its
state by G1 and JK inputs of FF3.

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OPERATION
Let the counter is initially in RESET.
The output of the counter is given by Q=QDQCQBQA i.e.,
Q=0000.

The first Flip flop must be the in the toggle mode by


constant high on its J and K inputs. Then QA=1.

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TRUTH TABLE

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When the first clock pulse arrives, the FF1 output goes from
0 to 1.
The output of the counter is Q=0001.
When the second clock pulse arrives, the first and second
Flip flops toggle. (since J=K=1)

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Thus the FF1 goes from 1 to 0 and FF2 goes from 0 to 1.

The output of the counter is given by


Q=0010.

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When the third clock pulse arrives FF1 toggles from


0 to1.
The output is given by Q=0011
When forth clock pulse occurs the FF1 and FF2 goes
from 1 to 0 and FF3 goes from 0 to 1.

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The output is given by Q=0100.

When the fifth clock pulse occurs the output is given by


Q=0101.

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When the sixth clock pulse occurs the output is given by


Q=0110.
When the seventh clock pulse occurs the output is given by
Q=0111.
When the eighth clock pulse occurs the output is given by
Q=1000.
When the ninth clock pulse occurs the output is given by
Q=1001.

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When the tenth clock pulse occurs the output is given by


Q=1010.

When the eleventh clock pulse occurs the output is


given by Q=1011.
When the twelth clock pulse occurs the output is given
by Q=1100.
When the thirteenth clock pulse occurs the output is
given by Q=1101.

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When the fourteenth clock pulse occurs the output is


given by Q=1110.
When the fifteenth clock pulse occurs the output is
given by Q=1111.
Whenever QA=QB=QC=1, FF4 changes only twice in the
sequence.

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Above condition is detected by G2.

When the clock pulse occurs FF4 changes its state.


For all other times the J&K inputs of FF4 are low. (no
change condition )

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When the sixteenth clock pulse arrives all the four flip flops
change from 1 to 0.
so the output is given by Q=0000.

The counting sequence is completed through a passage of


sixteen clock pulses.

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Advantages
Clock pulses are applied simultaneously to all the flip flops.
Propagation delay is less.
Speed of operation is more.
Requires minimum number of gates.

Cost is somewhat low compared to asynchronous counter.

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Summary

In synchronous counter all flip-flops change its output in


synchronous with clock

Synchronous counter is faster than asynchronous


counter.
In synchronous counter all the flip flops one triggered by
the same clock

In asynchronous counter each flip-flop is triggered by the


o/p of previous flip- flop.
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QUIZ
1.

In synchronous counter clock pulses are applied in a


manner of

a) at a time

b) output of 1st flip-flop as clock to the next


c) depending on the no.of flip-flops
d) none

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2. The no .of flip-flops required for Mod-16 counter are

a) 2

b) 3

c) 4

d) 16
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3. Among these which counter has high speed of operation


a) ripple counter
b) Mod 16 counter
c) decade counter
d) none

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4. If J=1,K=1 the output of the flip flop is

a) 1
b) 0

c) toggle
d) none

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EXPECTED QUESTIONS
1.

Explain the principle of operation of 4-Bit synchronous


counter ?

2.

What are the advantages of synchronous counter ?

3.

Draw the timing diagram of synchronous counter ?

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Assignment

1. Draw the logic circuit of 4- bit synchronous counter

2. Compare the timing diagrams of synchronous counter


with ripple counter.

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