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Metal Machining

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Machining

Objectives

Introduce cutting terminology and principles

Review modern machining technologies and new methods

(papers)

Introduce cutting parameters

Develop cutting models

Machining types

Turning

Drilling

Milling

Shaping

Planing

Broaching

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Machining tools

Single point

Multiple point

Most modern cutting tool materials are a matrix of

materials designed to be very hard. These materials will be

covered in the next chapter.

Machining terminology

Speed surface cutting speed (v)

Feed advance of tool through the part (f)

Depth of cut depth of tool into part (d)

Rake face tools leading edge

Rake angle slant angle of tools

leading edge (a)

Relief angle angle of tools following edge above part surface

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

ls

Orthogonal model

Depth of cut = to

Shear plane length measured along shear plane chip (ls )

Chip width (not shown) width of machined chip (w )

Shear angle angle of shearing surface measured from tool direction (f)

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Cutting conditions

Note: - Primary cutting due to speed

- Lateral motion of tool is feed

- Tool penetration is depth of cut

The three together form the material removal rate (MRR):

MRR = v f d

with units of (in/min)(in/rev)(in) = in3/min/rev

(or vol/min-rev)

Types of cuts:

Roughing:

Finishing:

Cutting geometry

Chip thickness ratio = r = to / tc

r = ls sinf/[ls cos(f - a)]

tan f = r cos a /[1 r sin a]

Obviously, the

assumed failure

mode is shearing of

the work along the

shear plane.

Cutting geometry

Note from the triangles in (c) that the shear strain (g) can be

estimated as

g = AC/BD = (DC + AD)/BD = tan(f - a) + cot f

Thus, if know

r and a, can

determine f,

and given f

and a, can

determine g.

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Cutting forces

Since R = R = R, we can get the force balance equations:

F = Fc sin a + Ft cos a

N = Fc cos a - Ft sin a

Fs = Fc cos f - Ft sin f

Fn = Fc sin f + Ft cos f

Fc and Ft because these can be

measured.

Friction angle = b

tan b = m = F/N

t = Fs/As

where

As = to w/sin f

Letting S = shear strength, we can derive the following

equations for the cutting and thrust forces*:

Fs = S As

Fc = Fs cos ( b - a)/[cos ( f + b - a)]

Ft = Fs sin ( b - a)/[cos ( f + b - a)]

* The other forces can be determined from the equations on the previous

slide.

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Merchant equations

The

Merchant

reln

is a function of a

Combining the equations from

the

previous

slides:

t = (Fc cos f - Ft sin f)/(t

f)

Merchant eqn

come

from?

ow/sin

The most likely shear angle will minimize the energy. Applying

Answer - Although the Merchant

dt/df = 0 gives:

eqn is not shown as a direct function

of a and b, these enter from

the reln

Merchant

equations for Fc and Ft from the

previous

slide!

What does the Merchant relation

indicate?

f = 45 + a/2 - b/2

- increase in friction angle decreases

decreaseshear

the toolangle

force and power

requirements!

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Cutting models

The orthogonal model for turning approximates the complex

shearing process:

to = feed (f)

w = depth of cut (d)

Cutting power

Power is force times speed:

P = Fc v

(ft-lb/min)

hpc = Fc v/33,000

(hp)

hpu = hpc/MRR

units?

hpg = hpc/E

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Cutting energy

Specific energy is

U = Fc v/(v tow) = Fc /(tow)

(in-lb/in3)

The table shown contains power and specific energy ratings for several work materials

at a chip thickness of 0.01 in. For other chip thicknesses, apply the figure to get a

correction factor multiply U by correction factor for thickness different than 0.01).

Machining example

In orthogonal machining the tool has rake angle 10, chip thickness before

cut is to = 0.02 in, and chip thickness after cut is tc = 0.045 in. The cutting

and thrust forces are measured at Fc = 350 lb and Ft = 285 lb while at a

cutting speed of 200 ft/min. Determine the machining shear strain, shear

stress, and cutting horsepower.

Solution (shear strain):

Determine r = 0.02/0.045 = 0.444

Determine shear plane angle from tan f = r cos a /[1 r sin a]

Now calculate shear strain from g = tan(f - a) + cot f

g = tan(25.4 - 10) + cot 25.4 = 2.386 in/in

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

answer!

In orthogonal machining the tool has rake angle 10, chip thickness before

cut is to = 0.02 in, and chip thickness after cut is tc = 0.045 in. The cutting

and thrust forces are measured at Fc = 350 lb and Ft = 285 lb while at a

cutting speed of 200 ft/min. Determine the machining shear strain, shear

stress, and cutting horsepower.

Solution (shear stress):

Determine shear force from Fs = Fc cos f - Ft sin f

Fs = 350 cos 25.4 - 285 sin 25.4 = 194 lb

As = (0.02) (0.125)/sin 25.4= 0.00583 in2

The shear stress is

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

answer!

In orthogonal machining the tool has rake angle 10, chip thickness before

cut is to = 0.02 in, and chip thickness after cut is tc = 0.045 in. The cutting

and thrust forces are measured at Fc = 350 lb and Ft = 285 lb while at a

cutting speed of 200 ft/min. Determine the machining shear strain, shear

stress, and cutting horsepower.

hpc = (350) (200)/33,000 = 2.12 hp

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

answer!

Cutting temperatures

In machining 98% of the cutting energy is converted into heat. This

energy flows into the work part, chip, and tool. Cook determined an

experimental equation for predicting the temperature rise at the

tool-chip interface during machining:

DT = 0.4 U (v to

c)

DT = 936 total tool

where

temperature, given v =

200 ft/min, rc = 120 inDT = mean temperature rise (F)

U = specific energy (in-lb/in3)

lb/(in3- F) and K = 0.125

v = cutting speed (in/s)

in2/s

/K)0.333/(r

rc = volumetric specific heat of the work material (in-lb/(in3-F))

K = thermal diffusivity of the work material (in2/s)

temperature!

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems

Cutters

Toroid

Cutters

Machining

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