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Education and Religion

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EDUCATION

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Module 43

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Figure 42-2: Annual Median
Earnings by Educational Level

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All rights reserved. Inc.Module 42 Slide 4 Figure 42-1: Higher Education Completion Rates (BA/BS). . Selected Countries © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

.Module 42 Slide 5 Figure 42-3: Foreign Students by Major Countries of Origin and Destination © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc.Module 42 Slide 6 Sociological Perspectives on Education █ Education is social institution that formally socializes members of society – Proportion of people age 25 or over with a high school diploma increased from 41% in 1960 to more than 86% in 2008 – Proportion with a college degree rose from 8% in 1960 to 29% in 2008 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.

and values of their culture – Internet offers new and potentially revolutionary way to transmit culture █ Promoting Social and Political Integration – Common identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to societal stability and consensus © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.Module 42 Slide 7 Functionalist View █ Transmitting Culture – Exposing young people to existing beliefs. norms. Inc.

responsible work habits. All rights reserved. discipline. and how to negotiate a bureaucratic organization █ Serving as an Agent of Change Schools serve as a meeting ground where people can share distinctive beliefs and traditions © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Module 42 Slide 8 Functionalist View █ Maintaining Social Control – Schools teach students punctuality. scheduling. .

Inc.Module 42 Slide 9 Conflict View █ Education is instrument of elite domination – Schools socialize students into values dictated by the powerful and stifle individualism and creativity to promote relatively insignificant change © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.

Module 42 Slide 10 Conflict View █ The Hidden Curriculum: Standards of behavior deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schools Credentialism: Increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. .Module 42 Slide 11 Conflict View █ Bestowal of Status – Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation – Tracking: Practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria – Correspondence principle: Promotes values expected of individuals in each social class. perpetuate social class divisions © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Module 42 Slide 12 Feminist Views █ In 20th century. Inc. sexism found in: • Stereotypes in textbooks • Pressure to study traditional women’s subjects • Unequal funding for athletics • Employment bias – Women have made strides in continuing education © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. .

All rights reserved. they may fulfill expectations Teacher-expectancy effect: Impact of teacher expectations and their large role on student performance © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Module 42 Slide 13 Interactionist View █ Labeling approach suggests that if people are treated in particular ways. .

Module 42 Slide 14 Table 42-1: Sociological Perspectives on Education © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Module 43 Slide 15 Bureaucratization of Schools █ Weber: characteristics of bureaucracy: – – – – – Division of labor Hierarchy of authority Written rules and regulations Impersonality Employment based on technical qualifications © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.

All rights reserved. . Inc.Module 43 Slide 16 Student Subcultures █ In colleges: – – – – Collegiate subculture Academic subculture Vocational subculture Nonconformist subculture • Each student is exposed to competing subcultures and must determine which seems most in line with his or her feelings and interests © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. .Slide 17 RELIGION © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Module 44 Slide 18 The Sociological Approach to Religion █ Durkheim and the Importance of Religion – Religion: Unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things (Durkheim) – Collective act • Includes many forms of behavior in which people interact with others © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. . Inc.

Inc. respect. . and even fear – Profane: includes the ordinary and commonplace – Sociologists study religion through: • Norms and values of religious faiths through their substantive beliefs • The social functions it fulfills © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Module 44 Slide 19 The Sociological Approach to Religion █ Durkheim and the Importance of Religion – Sacred: elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe.

Module 44 Slide 20 World Religions █ 89% of world’s population adheres to some religion – Christianity largest faith. Islam 2nd largest – Judaism forms historical foundation for Christianity and Islam – Hinduism embraces number of gods and reincarnation – Buddhism developed as reaction against Hinduism. uses meditation to overcome selfish cravings © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved. .

. Inc.Module 45 Slide 21 Table 45-1: Major World Religions © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Inc. might include providing a meeting ground for unmarried members © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved. or hidden functions.Module 44 Slide 22 Sociological Perspectives on Religion █ █ Manifest functions: Open and stated functions. religion defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine Latent functions: Unintended. covert.

Module 44 Slide 23 The Integrative Function of Religion █ Durkheim viewed religion as an integrative force in human society – – – – – Gives meaning and purpose to lives Offers ultimate values and ends Strengthens social integration Socializes young children Can be dysfunctional © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc.Module 44 Slide 24 Religion and Social Support █ Religion’s emphasis on divine and supernatural allows us to “do something” about calamities we face – Encourages people to view personal misfortunes as relatively unimportant – Faith-based community organization taken more responsibilities in social assistance © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. .

. Inc.Module 44 Slide 25 Religion and Social Change █ The Weberian Thesis – Protestant ethic: Followers of Protestant Reformation emphasized a disciplined work ethic. and a rational orientation for life – “Spirit of capitalism” has emerged as generalized cultural trait © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. this-worldly concerns. All rights reserved.

Module 44 Slide 26 Religion and Social Support █ Liberation theology: Church should be used in political efforts to eliminate poverty. discrimination. Inc. and other forms of injustice May be dysfunctional © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Inc. . it reinforces existing patterns of dominance and inequality © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Module 44 Slide 27 Religion and Social Control: A Conflict View █ Marx: religion impeded social change – People focus on other-worldly concerns – Religion drugged masses into submission by offering consolation for harsh lives on earth – To whatever extent religion influences social behavior.

S. All rights reserved.. women more likely than men to be affiliated with religion © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .Module 44 Slide 28 Feminist Perspective █ Theorists stressed fundamental role women play in religious socialization – Women generally take subordinate role in religious governance – Women play vital role as volunteers. Inc. staff. and educators – In U.

All rights reserved.Module 44 Slide 29 Table 44-1: Sociological Perspectives on Religion © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.

. All rights reserved. Inc.Module 45 Slide 30 Components of Religion: Belief █ Religious beliefs: Statements to which members of a particular religion adhere – Fundamentalism: emphasizes doctrinal conformity and literal interpretation of sacred texts • Found worldwide Spirituality not as strong in industrialized nations as in developing nations © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Module 45 Slide 31 Rituals █ Religious rituals: Practices required or expected of members of a faith – In recent decades. All rights reserved. Inc. . participation in religious rituals tended to hold steady or decline █ Religious experience: Feeling or perception of being in direct contact with ultimate reality or of being overcome with religious emotion © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. . All rights reserved.Module 45 Slide 32 Table 45-2: Components of Religion © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

organized religion not officially linked with the state or government © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved. Inc.Module 46 Slide 33 Religious Organization █ █ Ecclesiae: Religious organization claiming to include most or all members of a society Denominations: Large.

All rights reserved.Module 46 Slide 34 Religious Organization █ Sects: Relatively small religious group that broke away from some other religious organization to renew original vision of the faith – Fundamentally at odds with society and does not seek to become established national religions – Established sect: Out-growth of a sect that remains isolated © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.

denominations. . and sects best viewed as types along a continuum From individual perspective.Module 46 Slide 35 Comparing Forms of Religious Organization █ █ Ecclesiae. religion and spirituality remarkably fluid One sign of fluidity is rapid rise of electronic church © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. . Inc. and New Religious Movements © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Denominations.Module 46 Slide 36 Table 46-1: Characteristics of Ecclesiae. Sects.