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DESIGN

OF
MACHINE ELEMENTS

DEFINATION
Machine

Design is defined as, use of Scientific


principles,
Technical
information
and
Imagination in a description of a machine or
mechanical system so as to perform specific
work with maximum economy and efficiency.

DEFINATION
Design

is essentially a decision-making
process. If we have a problem, we need to
design a solution. In other words, to design is
to formulate a plan to satisfy a particular
need and to create something with a physical
reality.

Consider for an example, design of a chair. A


number of factors need be considered first:

(a) The purpose for which the chair is to be


designed such as whether it is to be used as an
easy chair, an office chair or to accompany a
dining
table.
(b) Whether the chair is to be designed for a
grown
up
person
or
a
child.

(c) Material for the chair, its strength and cost


need
to
be
determined.
(d) Finally, the aesthetics of the designed chair.

Examination scheme:Paper : - 100 Marks (4Hrs)


Term work : - 50 Marks

SYLLABUS
Section 1
UNIT-I
Design process
Design of simple machine parts
UNIT-2

Shafts, Keys, Couplings


UNIT-3

Threaded joints

SYLLABUS
Section II
UNIT-IV

Power screws
UNIT-V

Design for Fluctuating Loads


UNIT-VI

Mechanical Springs

Unit2: Shaft
Definition:A shaft is rotating machine element which is
used to transmit motion or power from one place to
another.
In order to transfer power from one shaft to
another, the various members such as pulleys, gears
etc. are mounted on it.

Types of shaft
1)Solid shaft
2)Hollow shaft

Hollow shaft is lighter than solid shaft for same


outer diameter.

Hollow shaft have more strength per Kilogram of


material compared with solid shafts.

Propeller shaft and the main shaft between the air


compressor are gas turbine in aircraft engine are
hollow shaft

Axle & Spindle

Axle is a non-rotating member used for supporting


rotating wheels etc. and do not transmit any torque. It
is subjected to bending moment only.
e. g Rear axle of wagon wheel.

Occasionally the axle also transmits torque


e. g Automobile rear axle

An axle may rotate with the wheel or simply supports


a rotating wheel

Spindle is a short rotating shaft


e. g Spindle shaft of Lathe machine or Drilling machine

Standard diameters of steel bars


5

20

45

90

22

50

100

25

55

110

10

28

60

120

12

30

65

140

14

32

70

160

16

35

75

180

18

40

80

200

Materials for shaft

The materials used for shaft should have following


properties
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

It
It
It
It
It

should
should
should
should
should

have
have
have
have
have

high strength
high good Machinability
low Notch sensitivity factor
good heat treatment properties
high wear resistant properties

Ordinary transmission shafts are made of medium plain


carbon steel such as 40C8, 45C4.

If greater strength is desired high carbon steels such as


45C8, 50C4, or Alloy steel such as 16Mn5Cr4,
40Cr4Mo2,16Ni3Cr2 are used.

Manufacturing of shaft

Hot-Rolling :Since it is hot rolling , scaling is always present on the


surface and machining is required to make the surface
smooth.

Cold-Drawing:Since it is cold drawn it has got its inherent


characteristics of smooth bright finish. Amount of
machining therefore is minimal. Better yield strength is
also obtained. This is widely used for general purpose
transmission shaft.
Hardening of surface :Case hardening and carburizing

Design of shaft

Shaft may be designed on the basis of

1. Strength
2. Rigidity and stiffness

Design of shaft based on strength

1.

Shaft subjected to axial force only

2.

Shaft subjected to torque( twisting moment ) only.

3.

Shaft subjected to Bending moment only

4.

Shaft subjected to combined torque and bending


moments

5.

Shaft subjected to axial load in addition to combined


torsion and bending load.