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Porous Materials

Types of Porous Materials

IUPAC has classified Porous Materials in to 3 categories
- Microporous Materials ( >20A)

- Mesoporous Materials ( 20A 500A)
Silica, Carbon materials
- Macroprous Materials ( <500A)

Porous Materials
Zeolites are inorganic crystalline solids with small pores
(1-20 diameter) running throughout the solid.
They are aluminosilicate framework structures made
from corner sharing SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedra.
Discovered in 1756.
Zeo-lite '' Boiling Sone.
Since 1756, 200 types of Zeolites recognized.
In 1949, first man made zeolites produced

Porous Materials
microporous inorganic crystalline materials.
To get cheaper and better zeolites.
Usually synthesized under hydrothermal conditions.

Porous Materials
Synthesis of zeolites from Coal fly ash
Fly ash composition is similar to some volcanic materials,
precursor of natural zeolites promoted the synthesis of zeolite
from this waste material.
The type and yield of synthesised zeolite depended mainly on
alkaline condition and SiO2/Al2O ratio of fly ash.
The origin of coal source will have effect on zeolite produced.

Experimental Work
Synthesis of Zeolites from fly ash
One of the objectives of this project is to synthesis zeolites

from the fly ash.

The synthesis was carried out using Fusion Method

Different FA/NaOH ratios were used.

They mixed and milled, then the mix heated at 600C.
The fusion product powdered and dissolved in DW.
Ageing took place at room temperature at different time.
The mix was crystallised at 80C for 26 hours.
The mix filtered, washed with D.W and dried over night.

Experimental Work
Characterization of FA and FAZ



The morphology of the samples were studied by

Samples coated with gold.

XRD measurements were collected in a 2

range (3-70)

Particle size

The average particle sizes of various samples

were determined by Particle size analyser.

Results and Discussion

Fly ash
Smooth surface spheres.
1 -2000m
Crystalline phases
Quratz(SiO2), mullite

XRD pattern of FA and its SEM image. Qtz,

quartz; Mul, mullite

Results and Discussion

Effects of NaOH/FA ratio
*At lowest NaOH/FA ratio (0.8), there
is no signal of zeolite produced

*The increase in the proportion of NaOH

resulted in the production of type X

* Further increase, mark a change to

zeolite HS.

Results and Discussion

Effects of Temperature
Crystallisation Temp: 40C and 90C
At 40C no modification of FA
until NaOH/FA ratio of 2.
The highest level of zeolitisation
achieved is the result of reaction at
high temperature between NaOH
and fly ash

Results and Discussion

60C , NaOH/FA 2

90C , NaOH/FA 1.2

Fly ash is a good candidate for synthesising

NaOH/FA ratio and Temperature have the
great effect of zeolites produced.
More characterization analysis need to be
carried out to confirm the best condition to
synthesis from fly ash.