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For purpose of criminal investigative
analysis (profiling), it is important to
record much more than those areas in
which acts of violence took place.
Photographs can be instrumental in
recording the victim's lifestyle and
personality; the topography and
socioeconomic conditions surrounding
the crime scene; and much more which
is important to any investigator or
analyst who is unable to visit the crime

 When

photographing violent crime
scenes, the aim should be to record
a maximum of useful information
which will enable the viewer to
understand where and how the crime
was committed

but adjacent areas where important acts occurred immediately before or after the commission of the crime . The term "crime scene" refers not only to the immediate locality where the crime took place.

medium range and closeup photographs should be taken to enable the viewer to gain a clear concept of where each object or area interrelates to another . Long range.

. Aerial photographs are particularly important in serial rape or murder investigations since they geographically link crime scenes together.

 Overlapping photographs should be taken of the exterior of the crime scene to show its locale in relation to the rest of the neighborhood .

Also photograph any crowds which gather at a crime scene and the license plates of vehicles parked in the vicinity. Place the camera on a tripod or hold it steady at eye level so the horizon line is constant for each shot. The photograph can be cut and pasted together to create a panoramic view of the scene. since the killer may still be in the area observing the investigation. .

. A scale should also be visible but never place a suspect tool into the tool mark because it may alter the evidence. The point of entry and exit should be shown in such a manner that the marks of force will be shown clearly.

use a normal lens (45mm to 55mm) in stead of a wide angle lens. especially when close up photographs are taken . When photographing the interiors of room with a 35mm camera. A wide angle lens creates distortion.

The location of fingerprints should be photographed and in all instances. tool marks and impressions of shoe prints. . some notation should be made in the photo log or on the photograph explaining what the photograph is showing. trace evidence such as cigarette butts. Interior photographs should depict the conditions of the room. articles left at the scene.

time watch and clock stopped should be recorded on film . TV and lights turned on. coffee cups. food in cooking stages. playing cards orderly stacked or scattered. such as the telephone receiver off the hook or wires cut. Signs of activity prior to the occurrence. drinking glasses or liquor bottles.

 In general. articles apparently in use immediately prior to the commission of the crime or which appear to have been disturbed from their customary position should be photographed. .

 During a rape investigation. black and blue marks. torn clothing. the purpose of the photographic record is to record information on signs of any struggle at the scene where the attack occurred. Bite marks should be photographed using oblique lighting. . with and without a measuring device at the crime scene and also the morgue. etc. or indications of the victim's effort to resist attack. such as bruises.

The cameraman should describe on tape each room and view of the crime scene and insure that other investigators and crime scene technician are silent during the taping. poor focusing and lighting and improper use of the zoom feature of the cameras. however. it should never replace still photography. . The videotaping of crime scene has become common practice in many jurisdictions. Common errors committed when videotaping a crime scene include panning the camera rapidly.

 In 1981. Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a chargecoupled device for imaging. While the Mavica saved images to disk. . and the camera was not fully digital. the images were displayed on television. eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica.

Kodak unveiled the DCS 100. commercial digital photography was born. In 1991. the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography. .

while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper. Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. .

19th century studio camera standing on tripod and using plates .

c.Box camera one of the first mass-produced pocket cameras using film. 1900 .

Compact Kodak folding camera from 1922 .

Leica-II one of the first 135 film cameras. 1932 .

Contax S of 1949 – the first pentaprism SLR .

Polaroid Colorpack 80 instant camera. c 1975 .

2000 .Digital camera Canon Ixus class. c.

the first digital SLR used in journalism and sports photography. c.Nikon D1. 2000 .

c. 2010 .Smartphone with built-in camera spreads private images globally.

or General Order on the use of digital imaging. image security. but should also include film-based and video applications as well. Department Policy. The SOP should not apply just to digital. . The SOP should include when digital imaging is used. chain of custody. Develop a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). and release and availability of digital images. image enhancement.

. This can be done a variety of ways including saving the image file to a hard drive or recording the image file to a CD. Some agencies elect to use image security software. Most importantly. preserve the original digital image.

 Digital images should be preserved in their original file formats. The saving of a file in some file formats subject the image to lossy compression. . If lossy compression is used critical image information may be lost and artifacts introduced as a result of the compression process.

detectives could view any image files but they would not have rights to delete or overwrite those files. . and several individuals would have access to the image files. As an example. make the files read-only for all but your evidence or photo lab staff. If images are stored on a computer workstation or server.

. If an image is to be analyzed or enhanced the new image files created should be saved as new file names. The original file must not be replaced (overwritten) with a new file. otography_requirements_of_criminal_inv estigative_analysis.html  hy#Digital_photography  3. ml  .