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Management, Leadership &

Change (MLC);
Leadership & Culture
BA (Hons) Business Level 6

Janette Bradnick/Ratnes Alahakone

Learning Outcomes:
• By the end of this session you should be able to:
▫ Define the meaning of culture
▫ Identify the dimensions of culture according to
Hofstede and the GLOBE studies
▫ Explain the effects of culture on the leadership
process based on the GLOBE studies
▫ Discuss the strengths and criticisms of the effects
of culture studies on leadership and identify the
potential application of the findings

What is culture?
• It is difficult to define as it is an abstract term.
• In the leadership context, culture is defined as:
“the learned beliefs, values, rules, norms, symbols
and traditions that are common to a group of
people”

- These shared qualities of a group make them
unique
- Culture is dynamic and transmitted to others

Culture and Leadership • With globalisation. there is a need to understand how cultural differences affect leadership performance • Leaders have to be competent in cross cultural awareness and practice . more international trade. people are more interconnected. cultural exchange and worldwide telecommunication systems • Hence.

Culture and Leadership • Along these lines. Today's international organizations require leaders who can adjust to different environments quickly and work with partners and employees of other cultures (House et al.. 2001). . cross-cultural leadership has developed as a way to understand leaders who work in the newly globalized market.

tastes.Cross Cultural Competencies • Adler and Bartholomew (1992) – global leaders need to develop five cross cultural competencies:  understand business. political and cultural environments worldwide learn the perspectives. trends and technologies of many other cultures Need to be able to work simultaneously with people of many other cultures Be able to adapt to living and communicating in other cultures Learn to relate to people from other cultures from a position of equality rather than cultural superiority .

Ethnocentrism • Tendency for individuals to place their own group (ethnic. • It’s a perception that one’s own culture is better that the culture of others • It can be a major obstacle to effective leadership because it prevents people from fully understanding and/or respecting others’ viewpoints. . racial or cultural) at the center of their observations of others and the world.

but also applies in areas such as gender. sexual orientation and other independent contexts • Besides fighting their own prejudice. belief or emotion held by an individual about another individual or group that is based on faulty or unsubstantiated data • Often thought of in the context of race. .Prejudice • A largely fixed attitude. age. leaders also face the challenge of dealing with the prejudice of followers.

000 employees of the same multinational company located in forty countries .Dimensions of Cultures: Geert Hofstede Five Dimensions In the 1980s Hofstede carried out a study of 116.

Javidan. Dorfman & Gupta (2004) Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness study: . Hanges.The GLOBE study – House.825 organizations located in 62 countries .Analysis based upon nine dimensions: - Assertiveness Future orientation Gender egalitarianism Uncertainty avoidance Power-distance Institutional collectivism In-group collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation .

or group relies on established social norms. rituals. organization. loyalty. Inc. and procedures to avoid uncertainty Power Distance  degree to which members of a group expect and agree that power should be shared unequally Institutional Collectivism:  degree to which an organization or society encourages institutional or societal collective action In-Group Collectivism:  degree to which people express pride. Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications.  extent to which a society.Nine Cultural Dimensions Uncertainty Avoidance 11 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice. and cohesiveness in their organizations or families Gender Egalitarianism:  degree to which an organization or society minimizes gender role differences and promotes gender equality .

Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications. Assertiveness: 12 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice. and delaying gratification Performance Orientation: • extent to which an organization or society encourages and rewards group members for improved performance and excellence Humane Orientation: • degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for being fair. generous. and aggressive in their social relationships Future Orientation: • extent to which people engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning.Nine Cultural Dimensions. Inc. altruistic. confrontational. cont. • degree to which people in a culture are determined. assertive. and kind to others . caring. investing in the future.

Inc. Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications. .13 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice.

. Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications. Inc.14 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice.

Inc.Characteristics of Clusters Characteristics include • Anglo – competitive and result-oriented 15 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice. supportive of co-workers. treat women with equality • Germanic Europe – value competition & aggressiveness and are more result-oriented • Latin America – loyal & devoted to their families and similar groups . Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications. • Confucian Asia – result-driven. encourage group working together over individual goals • Eastern Europe – forceful.

demonstrate strong family loyalty . • Middle East – devoted & loyal to their own people. Inc. women treated with greater equality • Southern Asia – strong family & deep concern for their communities • Sub-Sahara Africa – concerned & sensitive to others. women afforded less status • Nordic Europe – high priority on long-term success. Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications.Characteristics of Clusters Characteristics include • Latin Europe – value individual autonomy 16 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice.

Leadership Behaviour and Culture Clusters • Overall purpose of the GLOBE project was to determine how people from different cultures viewed leadership • And to determine how differences in cultures were related to differences in approaches to leadership. .

Examples include being visionary. integrative. to motivate. self-sacrificing. decisive and performance oriented. and to expect high performance from others based on strongly held core values. . Examples include being collaborative. inspirational. trustworthy.GLOBE research identified six global leadership behaviors • Charismatic/value-based leadership – ability to inspire. nonmalevolent and administratively competent • Participative leadership – how much leaders involve others in decision making. diplomatic. • Team-oriented leadership – team building and a common purpose among team members.

For instance. being modest and sensitive to other people • Autonomous leadership – independent and individualistic leadership. • Self-protective leadership – behaviours that ensure the safety and security of the leader and the group. status conscious.The Six Global Leadership Behaviours (cont’d) • Humane-oriented leadership – emphasises being supportive. For instance being self-centred. face saving and procedural. conflict inducing. compassionate and generous. For instance being autonomous and unique. . considerate.

Eastern European Desired Leadership Profile Autonomous Leadership Self-Protective Leadership Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Participative Leadership .

Latin American Desired Leadership Profile Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Self-Protective Leadership Participative Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Autonomous Leadership .

Latin Europe Desired Leadership Profile Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Participative Leadership Self-Protective Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Autonomous Leadership .

Confucian Asia Desired Leadership Profile Self-Protective Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Autonomous Leadership Participative Leadership .

Nordic Europe Desired Leadership Profile Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Participative Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Autonomous Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Self-Protective Leadership .

Anglo Desired Leadership Profile Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Participative Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Autonomous Leadership Self-Protective Leadership .

Sub-Saharan Desired Leadership Profile Humane Oriented Leadership Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Participative Leadership Self-Protective Leadership Autonomous Leadership .

Southern Asia Desired Leadership Profile Self-Protective Leadership Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Autonomous Leadership Participative Leadership .

Germanic Europe Desired Leadership Profile Autonomous Leadership Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Participative Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Self-Protective Leadership .

Middle East Desired Leadership Profile Self-Protective Leadership Humane-Oriented Leadership Autonomous Leadership Charismatic/Value Based Leadership Team-Oriented Leadership Participative Leadership .

Universally Desirable Leadership Attributes Trustworthy Just Honest Has foresight Plans ahead Encouraging Positive Dynamic Motive arouser Confidence builder Motivational Dependable Intelligent Decisive Effective bargainer Win-Win problem solver Communicative Informed Administratively skilled Coordinative Excellence oriented Team builder .

Universally Undesirable Leadership Attributes Loner Irritable Ruthless Asocial Nonexplicit Dictatorial Noncooperative Egocentric .

Watch this! • http://www.com/watch?v=w7sJfVl8qe w • http://www.com/watch?v=UlpdJFFuc GY .youtube.youtube.

Hence the results are generalisable between cultures and within cultures around the world. • GLOBE’s classification of cultural dimensions is more expansive than Hofsteds’s dimensions • GLOBE studies provide useful information about what is universally accepted as good and bad leadership. A quantitative design was administered in 62 countries. . • Highlights the need for people to expand ethnocentric tendencies and “open our window” to the diverse ways in which leadership is viewed from different regions around the world.Strengths • Findings from GLOBE are valuable and have contributed to understanding culture and leadership.

as implicit beliefs and convictions that individuals have about leaders. Power distance) and sometimes difficult to interpret. leadership is framed from an informationprocessing perspective.Criticisms • The GLOBE studies does not provide a clear set of assumptions and propositions to form a single theory about how culture related to leadership or influences the leadership process • The meaning of some terms are vague (eg. This way of thinking is limited to people’s perceptions and ignores leadership research in terms of what leaders do. . • It is difficult to identify a set of universal attributes in isolation from the context in which leadership occurs. • In the GLOBE studies.

design new employee orientation programs. Inc. Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications. and these findings help our leaders adapt their style to be more effective in different cultural settings. . conduct programs in relocation training.Application 35 Northouse Leadership Theory and Practice. • Different cultures have different ideas about what they want from their leaders. • The findings can help global leaders communicate more effectively across cultural and geographic boundaries. and improve global team effectiveness. • Information on culture and leadership can be used to build culturally sensitive Web sites. • The findings about culture can help leaders understand their own cultural biases and preferences.

Learning Outcomes: • You should now be able to: ▫ Define the meaning of culture ▫ Identify the dimensions of culture according to Hofstede and the GLOBE studies ▫ Explain the effects of culture on the leadership process based on the GLOBE studies ▫ Discuss the strengths and criticisms of the effects of culture studies on leadership and identify the potential application of the findings .