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Matakuliah

Tahun
Versi

: D0524 / Algoritma dan Pemrograman Komputer
: 2005
:

Pertemuan 01
Algorithm

1

Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini. diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : • Menerapkan prinsip – prinsip dasar algoritma menggunakan pseudo code dan flowchart 2 .

Outline Materi • • • • History of Algorithm Algorithm Definition Algorithm Implementation Examples of Algorithm 3 .

an abstract model of a computer formulated by Alan Turing.History of Algorithm • • • • • The word algorithm comes from the name of the 9th century Persian mathematician Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa alKhwarizmi. This problem was largely solved with the description of the Turing machine. a formal criterion for an algorithm is that it is a procedure that can be implemented on a completely-specified Turing machine or one of the equivalent formalisms. The first case of an algorithm written for a computer was Ada Byron's notes on the analytical engine written in 1842. The lack of mathematical rigor in the "well-defined procedure" definition of algorithms posed some difficulties for mathematicians and logicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The word has now evolved to include all definite procedures for solving problems or performing tasks. Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa alKhwarizmi 4 . Nowadays. The word algorism originally referred only to the rules of performing arithmetic using Arabic numerals but evolved into algorithm by the 18th century. for which she is considered by many to be the world's first programmer.

will terminate in a corresponding recognizable end-state • In short.Algorithm Definition • Algorithm is a finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task which. given an initial state. algorithm is a step–by–step procedure to solve a problem • Computer has no intelligence of its own – it cannot solve our mistakes! 5 .

As the name suggests.Algorithm Implementation • Flowchart – a schematic representation of a process. from a near-exact imitation of a real programming language at one extreme. pseudocode may therefore vary widely in style. pseudocode generally does not actually use the syntax of any particular language. there is no systematic standard form. although any particular writer will generally borrow the appearance of a particular language – depending on the writer. to a description approaching formatted prose at the other 6 . or to find flaws in the process • Pseudocode – a generic way of describing an algorithm using the conventions of programming languages. They are commonly used in business/economic presentations to help the audience visualize the content better.

Algorithm Implementation Flowchart Common Flowchart Symbols Terminal : Start or end of a program Computational steps or processing function of a program Input or output operation Decision making and branching Connector or joining of two parts of program Flow Line 7 .

Algorithm Implementation Flowchart A simple flowchart for what to do if a lamp doesn't work 8 .

Algorithm Examples – Wake Up • We use algorithms all the time. Here is a typical algorithm for waking up in the morning. Wake-up algorithm: Get out of bed Brush teeth Eat breakfast Take shower Get dressed 9 .

– Develop the program logic as flowchart and pseudocode needed to solve the problem 10 .Algorithm Examples – Temperature Conversion • The local weather centre wants a computer program that will accept a temperature reading in degrees Fahrenheit as input. convert the value to degrees in Celsius and provide both values as output. for its hourly weather report.

Algorithm Examples – Temperature Conversion • Flowchart : Start Input degreesF degreesC = (degreesF-32) * 5/9 • Pseudocode: Input degreesF degreesC = (degreesF-32) * 5/9 Output degreesF and degreesC Or Convert degreesF to degrees C Output degreesF and degrees C End 11 .

58 marks in three tests.Algorithm Examples – Exercises • Sales Application: – In a company. items sold at regular price and those at sale price. Sales are of two types. • Average Mark: – A student gains 45. – Design an algorithm to input that information and output their average mark. 53. – Design the algorithm (program logic) to calculate their pay. a salesperson’s pay is determined by how much they have sold in a month. 12 . Each person is paid a base amount of £920 plus a commission of 6% on regular-price sales and 3% on reduced-price sales.