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Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts

Revision of
Thermodynamic Concepts

Examples
Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
S.Y. B. Tech.
ME0223 SEM - IV
Production Engineering
ME0223 SEM-IV

Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines

S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.

ε = 0. 100 X 8.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 1 The e.75 mV Thus. B.m. when t = 100 ⁰C. Prod Engg. Hence.20 t – 5 X 10-4 t2 mV The millivoltmeter is calibrated at Ice and Steam Points. . ε = 0. the thermocouple will read. ε = 0. ε = 0 mV. when gas thermometer reads 50 ⁰C (corresponding to 8. in a thermocouple with the test junction at t ⁰C on gas thermometer scale and reference junction at Ice Point is given by.33 ⁰C …ANS 15 ME0223 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S.75 = 58. At Steam point. Tech.20 X 100 – 5 X 10-4 X (100)2 = 15 mV At t = 50 ⁰C. ΔT = 100 ⁰C → Δε = 15 mV. What will this thermocouple read when the gas thermometer reads 50 ⁰C ? At Ice Point. Y.75 mV).20 X 50 – 5 X 10-4 X (50)2 = 8. when t = 0 ⁰C.f.

Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0. where the atmospheric pressure is 85.81)[(13600*0. .35)-(1000*0.1 m. B.6)+(9. The tank is located on a mountain at 1400 m altitude.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 2 A water in a tank is pressurised by air and a pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer.1)-(850*0.h1ρwaterg . Tech. oil and Mercury to be 1000 kg/m3.6 kPa.h1ρwater . P1 + h1ρwaterg + h2ρoilg . Y.h2ρoil) 1 h1 Water 2 h2 h3 = (85. h2 = 0. Prod Engg.h3ρmercuryg = Patm Oil  P1 = Patm .2 m and h3 = 0.2)] Kg/m3 Kg/m3 Kg/m3 kPa m/sec2 m m m = 130 kPa…ANS Mercury S. Take the densities of water. 850 kg/m3 and 13600 kg/m3 respectively.h2ρoilg + h3ρmercuryg Air P1 = Patm + g(h3ρmercury .35 m.

Y. During the cooling process. Prod Engg. the fluid loses 500 kJ of heat.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 3 A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that is cooled while stirred by a paddle wheel. the internal energy of the fluid is 800 kJ. B.e. and the paddle wheel does 100 kJ of work on the fluid. Initially.in = 100 kJ Thus.800 kJ kJ kJ kJ U2 = 400 kJ….in – Qout = ∆U = U2 – U1 U1 = 800 kJ U2 = ? 100 – 500 = U2 . Tank is stationary → ∆KE = ∆PE = 0 500 kJ Wsh. Tech. . Determine the final internal energy of the fluid. ∆E = ∆U Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics (i. Ein – Eout = ∆Esystem Wsh.ANS S. Energy Balance).

Ti – To are the indoor and outdoor temperatures. Energy Balance). .1 ºC…ANS S. B. Determine the indoor air temperature when steady conditions are established. However. The Heat transfer rate between the room and the outdoor air is given by Q = UA(Ti – To) where U = 6 W/m2.in = Qout = UA(Ti – To) 200 (W) = (6 W/m2ºC).(Ti – To)  Ti = 26. Prod Engg.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 4 A room is initially at the outdoor temperature of 25ºC. 200 W. Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics (i. This increases room air temperature. i. at steady state. The electricity consumed by a fan is the Energy input to the room.(30 m2).e. rate of Heat transfer from the room = Heat input to the room.e. A= 30 m2 exposed surface area of the room. Ein – Eout = dEsystem / dt = 0 Steady State  Ein – Eout Welect. Y. Tech. A large fan that consumes 200 W of electricity is turned on.ºC overall Heat transfer coefficient.

Prod Engg. If the piston is not attached to the shaft.53434) kg kPa Volume (V) v1 = 0. Y. Volume. determine the Work done by the steam during the Process . Use the data given in FIG. Tech. Pressure (P) P=Const V2 W1 2   PdV  P (V2  V1 ) V1 W1-2 = mP(v1 – v2)….53434 v2 = 0. Heat is transferred to the steam until the temperature reaches 250 ⁰C..V = mv W1-2 = (5)(400)[(0.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 5 A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 5 kg of steam at 400 kPa and 200 ⁰C. for Sp.7 kJ…ANS Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S. B. and its mass is constant. Quasi-Static Process. Constant Pressure.59520 – 0.59520 m3/kg m3/kg ME0223 SEM-IV m3/kg W1-2 = 121. .

W1 2   PdV State 2 V1 T0 = 80 ⁰C = Const.4) ln 0. Prod Engg. The air is now compressed to 0.4 m3 of air at 100 kPa and 80 ⁰C.1 m3 in such a way that the temperature remains constant.4 kPa m3 V1 W1-2 = -55. Determine the Work done during this Process. Pressure P2 V2 V2 W1 2 State 1 P1 V2 Volume dV V2  P1V1   P1V1 ln V V1 V1 0.5 kJ…ANS Negative sign indicates that the Work is done ON the system. ME0223 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S.1 W1-2 = (100)(0. B. Y.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 6 A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0. Isothermal. Tech. Quasi-Static Process. .

5 kPa…ANS Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S.1156 kJ/kg.015 kW is operated within the tank for 30 min.4 ⁰C….T1) Wsh Wsh = (0.4+273) K  ME0223 SEM-IV P2 = 364.ANS T1 = 27 ⁰C P1 = 350 kPa P1V1 P2V2  Applying the Ideal Gas Law. and (b) the final pressure of the Helium gas. Determine (a) the final temperature.7 kg of Helium at 27 ⁰C and 350 kPa. A paddle wheel with a power rating of 0.015 kW) (30 min) = 27 kJ (a) 27 kJ = (0.1156 kJ/kg. . B. Tech. Assume Cv = 3. Prod Engg.7 kg Ein – Eout = ∆Esystem Applying the Energy Balance. T1 T2 P2 = (b) 350 kPa (27+273) K (39. ⁰C)(T2 . Wsh = ∆U = U2 – U1 = mCv(T2 .Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 7 An insulated rigid tank initially contains 0. ⁰C He gas Thus.27 ⁰C) T2 = 39.7 kg)(3. Y. ∆E = ∆U Tank is stationary → ∆KE = ∆PE = 0 m = 0.

QL = 50 MW River ME0223 SEM-IV ηth = Wnet.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 8 Heat is transferred to a Heat Engine from a furnace at the rate of 80 MW. Prod Engg. .out QH = 30 MW 80 MW = 0. B. QH = 80 MW Furnace and QL = 50 MW. Net power of the Heat Engine is.ANS Thermal Efficiency of the Heat Engine is... Y..5 %. Tech.ANS Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S. If the rate of Waste Heat Rejection to a nearby river is 50 MW. determine the Net Power and the Thermal Efficiency of the Heat Engine.375 or 37. QH = 80 kW Wnet Heat Engine Wnet = QH – QL = (80 – 50) MW = 30 MW….

Tech.in = QH COPHP = Heat Loss = 80. -2 ⁰C Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S.ANS ME0223 SEM-IV Outdoor Air. Heat Pump COP = 2. Y. the house is estimated to lose Heat at the rate of 80. 20 ⁰C 80. If the Heat Pump is having COP of 2. Prod Engg.000) kJ/hr = 48. i.5 QH = ? = 32.000 kJ/hr = 8.000 kJ/hr House.5 QL = ? (b) QL = QH – Wnet.000 – 32.000 kJ/hr 2.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 9 A Heat Pump is used to used to meet the heating requirements of a house and maintained at 20 ⁰C on a day when the outdoor temperature drops to -2 ⁰C. determine (a) Power consumed by the Heat Pump (b) Rate at which Heat is absorbed from the cold outdoor air.000 kJ/hr….e.000 kJ/hr. Hence the Heat Pump has to deliver the SAME Heat to the house. 80. .9 kW…ANS Wnet = ? The house is to be maintained at 20 ⁰C.000 kJ/hr.5.in = (80. B. (a) Wnet.

. Evaluate the Heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net Heat Transfer to the reservoir at 40 ⁰C. Tech. Heat transfer to the Engine is 2000 kJ and the net Work output of the combined Engine is 360 kJ.642 873 W1 = 0. B. the Engine drives a reversible Refrigerator which operates between reservoirs of 40 ⁰C and -20 ⁰C.253 Heat Engine W= Q2 = ? 360 kJ = 0.642 X 2000 = 1284 kJ T3 253 COPmax = = = 4. ηmax = 1 T1 = 873 K Q1 = 2000 kJ T3 = 253 K Refrigerator W1 Q4 W1 Q1 W2 = 1- T1 313 = 0.642 T2 Q3= Q4 + W2 COPmax = Q4 = 4.22 W2 T2 = 313 K ME0223 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 10 A reversible Heat Engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures of 600 ⁰C and 40 ⁰C.22 T2 – T3 313 . Prod Engg. Y.

. Tech. Prod Engg.Revision of Thermodynamic Concepts Example 10…contd T1 = 873 K Q1 = 2000 kJ W1 – W2 = W = 360 kJ T3 = 253 K Refrigerator W1 Q4 W2 = W1 . Y. B. Heat Rejection to the 40 ⁰C reservoir = Q2 + Q3 = 716 + 4823 = 5539 kJ….ANS ME0223 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines S.22 X 924 = 3899 kJ Heat Engine W= Q2 = ? 360 kJ T2 = 313 K Q3= Q4 + W2 Q3 = Q4 + W2 = 3899 + 924 = 4823 kJ Q2 = Q1 – W1 = 2000 .360 = 924 kJ W2 Q4 = COP X W2 = 4.W = 1284 .1284 = 716 kJ Thus.