Root Locus
Motivation
To satisfy transient performance requirements, it may be necessary to know how
to choose certain controller parameters so that the resulting closedloop poles
are in the performance regions, which can be solved with Root Locus technique.
Definition
A graph displaying the roots of a polynomial equation when one of the
parameters in the coefficients of the equation changes from 0 to .
Example
R(s)
Gf (s)
Error
E(s)
GC (s)
Control
Input
D(s)
++
U(s)
G(s)
Output
Y(s)
Plant
H(s)
G ( s )Gc ( s )G f ( s )
1 G ( s)Gc ( s) H ( s )
Img
.
1 K p GH 0
Q:
Transient
Performance
Region
Real
Motivation
Ex: The closedloop characteristic equation for the DC motor positioning system
under proportional control is:
1 K P K S G(s) 0
1 K P 0.03
16
0
s(0.0174s 1)
Q: How to choose KP such that the resulting closedloop poles are in the
desired performance region?
How do we find the roots of the equation:
1 KP 0.03
16
0
s(0.0174s 1)
( s  pN P )
16
0
s(0.0174s 1)
1 KP
>> op_num=[0.48];
>> op_den=[0.0174 1 0];
0.48
0
0.0174s 2 s
No openloop zeros
Two openloop poles
>> rlocus(op_num,op_den);
>> [K, poles]=rlocfind(op_num,op_den);
Apply the following root locus sketching rules to obtain an approximated root
locus plot.
1 K
( s  z1 )( s  z2 ) ( s  z NZ )
(s  p1 )( s  p2 ) ( s  pNP )
Rule 1: The number of branches of the root locus is equal to the number
of closedloop poles (or roots of the characteristic equation). In
other words, the number of branches is equal to the number of
openloop poles or openloop zeros, whichever is greater. Ds KN s 0
Rule 2: Root locus starts at openloop poles (when K= 0) and ends at
openloop zeros (when K=). If the number of openloop poles
is greater than the number of openloop zeros, some branches
starting from finite openloop poles will terminate at zeros at
infinity (i.e., go to infinity). If the reverse is true, some branches
will start at poles at infinity and terminate at the finite openloop
zeros.
Ds KN s 0
K 0? K ?
Rule 3: Root locus is symmetric about the real axis, which reflects the
fact that closedloop poles appear in complex conjugate pairs.
Rule 4: Along the real axis, the root locus includes all segments that are
to the left of an odd number of finite real openloop poles and
zeros.
N s
Check the phases
K
D s
 1 rad 180
pi  zi
NP  NZ
k (2k 1)
80
[rad] (2k 1)
[deg] , k 0, 1, 2,
NP  NZ
NP  NZ
0 or
0
ds D( s)
ds N ( s)
angle
criterion
Rule 8: If the root locus passes through the imaginary axis (the stability boundary),
s  p1 s  p2
s  pN P
s  z1 s  z2
s  zN z
( s  z1 )( s  z2 ) ( s  z NZ )
N ( s)
0 or 1 K
0
D( s)
( s  p1 )( s  p2 ) ( s  pNP )
Step 2: Find the openloop zeros, zi, and the openloop poles, pi. Mark the openloop poles and zeros on the complex plane. Use to represent openloop
poles and to represent the openloop zeros.
Step 3: Determine the real axis segments that are on the root locus by applying
Rule 4.
Step 4: Determine the number of asymptotes and the corresponding intersection
0 and angles k by applying Rules 2 and 5.
Step 5: (If necessary) Determine the breakaway and breakin points using Rule 6.
Step 6: (If necessary) Determine the departure and arrival angles using Rule 7.
Step 7: (If necessary) Determine the imaginary axis crossings using Rule 8.
Step 8: Use the information from Steps 17 and Rules 13 to sketch the root locus.
Example 1
DC Motor Position Control
In the previous example on the printer paper advance position control, the proportional control
block diagram is:
0.03
DV
KP
Controller
Ei
16
s(0.0174s 1)
Plant G(s)
0.03
Sketch the root locus of the closedloop poles as the proportional gain KP varies from 0 to .
1 K pG s H s 0
0.48
1 Kp
N s
s 0.0174 s 1
D s
Example 1
Step 1: Transform the closedloop characteristic equation into the standard form for
sketching root locus:
1
1 27.58 K p
N s
s s 57.47
D s
p1 0, p2 57 .47
Step 3: Determine the real axis segments that are to be included in the root locus by
applying Rule 4.
p2 57.47
p1 0
Example 1
Step 4: Determine the number of asymptotes and the corresponding intersection 0
and angles k by applying Rules 2 and 5.
0
 zi
NP  NZ
57.47
28.74
2
k (2k 1)
NP
[rad]
 NZ
Step 5: (If necessary) Determine the breakaway and breakin points using Rule 6.
d N ( s)
d D( s)
0 or
0,
ds D ( s )
ds N ( s )
d s 0.0174 s 1
0,0.0348s 1 0, s 28.74
ds
0.48
Step 6: (If necessary) Determine the departure and arrival angles using Rule 7.
( p2  p1 )  p2 180 , p2 0
 p1  ( p1  p2 ) 180 , p1 180
Step 7: (If necessary) Determine the imaginary axis crossings using Rule 8.
Could s be pure imaginary in this example?
Example 1
Step 8: Use the information from Steps 17 and Rules 13 to sketch the root locus.
Img. Axis
30
20
10
57.47
Real Axis
60
28.74
50
40
30
0
20
10
0
10
20
30
Example 2
A positioning feedback control system is proposed. The corresponding block diagram
is:
R(s) +
K(s + 80)

U(s)
Controller
16
s(0.0174s 1)
Y(s)
Plant G(s)
Sketch the root locus of the closedloop poles as the controller gain K varies from 0 to
.
Find closedloop characteristic equation:
1 Gc s G s H s 0
1 K s 80
16
0
s 0.0174 s 1
Example 2
Step 1: Formulate the (closedloop) characteristic equation into the standard form
for sketching root locus:
16 s 80
1 K
N s
s 0.0174 s 1
K
1 920 K
D s
s 80
N s
s s 57.47
D s
openloop zeros
z1 80
openloop poles
p1 0, p2 57 .47
Step 3: Determine the real axis segments that are to be included in the root locus
by applying Rule 4.
z1 80 p2 57.47
p1 0
Example 2
Step 4: Determine the number of asymptotes and the corresponding intersection 0 and
angles k by applying Rules 2 and 5.
Step 5: (If necessary) Determine the breakaway and breakin points using Rule 6.
d N ( s)
d D( s)
0 or
0,
ds D( s )
ds N ( s )
d s 80
ds s s 57.47
s s 57.47  s 80 2 s 57.47
s 2 160s 4600 0
s1 122, s2 37.6
s s 57.47
0,
Example 2
Step 6: (If necessary) Determine the departure and arrival angles using Rule 7.
Step 7: (If necessary) Determine the imaginary axis crossings using Rule 8.
Step 8: Use the information from Steps 17 and Rules 13 to sketch the root locus.
Imag Axis
40
30
20
10
Real Axis
122
p1 0
0
10
20
30
40
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
Example 3
A feedback control system is proposed. The corresponding block diagram is:
R(s) +

K
( s 4)
Controller
U(s)
1
Y(s)
2
s(s 4s 20)
Plant G(s)
Sketch the root locus of the closedloop poles as the controller gain K varies from
0 to .
Find closedloop characteristic equation:
1 Gc s G s H s 0
1
K
1
0
s 4 s s 2 4 s 20
Example 3
Step 1: Transform the closedloop characteristic equation into the
standard form for sketching root locus:
1
1 K
N s
s s 4 s 20 s 4
2
D s
No openloop zeros
p1 0, p2 4, p3,4 2 4 j
p1 0
Example 3
Step 4: Determine the number of asymptotes and the corresponding intersection 0 and
angles k by applying Rules 2 and 5.
0
 zi
NP  NZ
k (2k 1)
NP
0 4 2 4 j 2  4 j
2
40
[rad]
 NZ
3
4
5
4
7
Step 5: (If necessary) Determine the breakaway and breakin points using Rule 6.
d N ( s)
d D( s)
0 or
0,
ds D( s )
ds N ( s )
2
d D s d s s 4 s 20 s 4 d 4
s 8s 3 36s 2 80s
ds
ds N s ds
1
4 s 3 24 s 2 72 s 80 0
Example 3
Step 6: (If necessary) Determine the departure and arrival angles using Rule 7.
Np
Nz
( s  z )  ( s  p ) 180
i
i 1
i 1
p1 0 :
p 180
p2 4 :
p 0
p3 2 4 j :
p4 2  4 j :
p 90
3
p 90
4
Step 7: (If necessary) Determine the imaginary axis crossings using Rule 8.
1 K
1
0
2
s s 4 s 20 s 4
s j
s s 2 4s 20 s 4 K 0
s 4 8s3 36s 2 80s K 0
 362 K 83 80 j 0
4  36 2 K 0 K1 0
K2 260
,
3
1
8 80 0
2 10 3.16
4
CLCE
Example 3
Step 8: Use the information from Steps 17 and Rules 13 to sketch the root locus.
Imag Axis
4
3
2
1
Real Axis
0
1
2
3
4
6
5
4
3
2
1
Example 4
A feedback control system is proposed. The corresponding block diagram is:
R(s) +

U(s)
K
Controller
Y(s)
s 2 2s 101
(s 2)(s 2 2s 26)
Plant G(s)
Sketch the root locus of the closedloop poles as the controller gain K varies from 0 to
.
Find closedloop characteristic equation:
s 2 2 s 101
1 K
0
2
s 2 s 2s 26
Example 4
Step 1: Formulate the (closedloop) characteristic equation into the standard
form for sketching root locus:
2
s
2s
101
1 K
N s
2
s 2s 2s 26
Ds
s 2s 12 25 0, p1 2, p2,3 1 5 j
Step 3: Determine the real axis segments that are to be included in the root
locus by applying Rule 4.
p1 2
Example 4
Step 4: Determine the number of asymptotes and the corresponding intersection 0 and angles k
by applying Rules 2 and 5.
N p  Nz 1
One asymptote
k 2k 1 180 180
Step 5: (If necessary) Determine the breakaway and breakin points using Rule 6.
Step 6: (If necessary) Determine the departure and arrival angles using Rule 7.
o
1
o
o
o
z1 1 10 j z1 90  tan 10  90  90 180
z 354 6
o
p1 2
p 180o
p2 1 5 j
p 11o
p3 1  5 j
z2 1  10 j 6o
z2
p 11o
2
Step 7: (If necessary) Determine the imaginary axis crossings using Rule 8.
s 2s 2 2s 26 K s 2 2s 101 0
s 3 4 K s 2 30 2 K s 52 101K 0
s j
52 101K  4 K 2 30 2 K  2 j 0
2
0
2 9.5 3 5.7
52 101K  4 K 0 1
,
52 ,
2
K
30.4
30
2
K
2
K3 1.1
1
101
Example 4
Step 8: Use the information from Steps 17 and Rules 13 to sketch the root locus.
10
9.5273j
Stability condition
 6o
0 K 1.1z1
5.6658j
or
K 30.4
0 K 1.1
p 11o
2
or
K 30.4
2
4
5.6658j
6
p 11o
2
8
9.5273j
10
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
z 6o
2
G( s )
M
B
V ( s)
A
qIN
MCs2 BCs A2 0
Transform characteristic equation into standard form for root locus analysis by identifying the parameter
that is to be varied. In this case, the load mass M is the varying parameter:
Standard form
N s
1 K
0
D s
1 M
C
BC
s2
N s
A2
s
BC
0
Img. Axis
D s
Varying parameter
openloop zeros
openloop poles
z1 z2 0
A2
p1 BC
d N ( s)
2 A2
0s ,s 0
ds D( s )
BC
p1
z1 , z2
Real
Axis
MCs2 BCs A2 0
Transform characteristic equation into standard form for root locus analysis by identifying the parameter
that is to be varied. In this case, the flow capacitance C is the varying parameter:
Standard form
1 K
N s
0
D s
ss
1 C
Varying parameter
M
A2
N s
Img. Axis
D s
B
z
0,
z
2
openloop zeros 1
M
ds D ( s )
2M
z2
z1
Real
Axis
MCs2 BCs A2 0
Transform characteristic equation into standard form for root locus analysis by identifying the parameter
that is to be varied. In this case, the viscous friction coefficient B is the varying parameter:
Standard form
C
N s
N s
1
B
2
1 K
0
A
MC
2
D s
s
MC
Varying parameter
openloop zeros
openloop poles
D s
0
Img. Axis
z1 0
p1,2
p1
A2
j
MC
d D( s )
A2
ds N ( s )
MC
z1
Smaller B:
Larger oscillating frequency and overshoot
p2
Real
Axis