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Nanobiotechnology is the application of

nanotechnology to the life sciences. This reserch field


includes two approaches. One is the application of
nano-scaled tools to biological systems and the other
is the use of biological systems as templates in the
development of novel nano-scaled products.
Nanobiotechnology is the intersection of inorganic
and organic engineering to solve critical problems in
biology. These problems can be creation of new
drugs, drug delivery vehicles, diagnostics, sensors,
assays, tools such as fluidicsand manufacturing
processes for all of the above.

Gold Nano particles are important due to the vibrant


colors produced by their interaction with visible light.
More recently, these unique optical-electronics
properties have been researched and utilized in high
technology
applications
such
as
organic
photovoltaics, sensory probes, therapeutic agents,
drug delivery in biological and medical applications,
electronic conductors and catalysis. The optical and
electronic properties of gold nanoparticles are
tunable by changing the size, shape, surface
chemistry, or aggregation state.


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Properties of GOLD NANOPARTICLES


Bio-inert
High x-ray attenuation
Readily dispersed
Readily synthesized
Readily functionalised

Bone tissue surface damage labeled with functionalized gold nanoparticle

These are biocompatible, biodegradable, facilely tunable


and superparamagnetic and thus controllable by an
external magnetic field. These attributes enable their
broad biomedical applications. In particular, magnetically
driven carriers are drawing considerable interest as an
emerging therapeutic delivery system because of their
superior delivery efficiency.
Iron oxide nanoparticles are iron oxide particles with
diameters between about 1 and 100 nanometers. The two
main forms are magnetite (Fe3O4) and its oxidized form
maghemite (-Fe2O3). They have attracted extensive
interest due to their super-paramagnetic properties.

Novel method for synthesis of superparamagnetic


iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) modified with a
cationic chitosan (CCh) and coated with a silica shell,
SPION-CCh-SiO2 was developed. The process was
carried out in two steps. In the first step the chitosan
coated SPIONs were obtained by co-precipitation of
Fe2+ and Fe3+ with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous
solution of CCh. In the second one, the silica shell is
formed on their surfaces. The formation of SPIONCCh-SiO2 was achieved by direct decomposition of
tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) adsorbed on a surface of
SPION-CCh dispersed in aqueous phase under
sonication and mechanical stirring

at room temperature. The chemical composition


and physicochemical properties of the materials
were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD),
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR),
Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and zeta potential
measurements. The morphology of the particles
was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy
(TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Magnetic properties were confirmed using Atomic
Force Microscopy/Magnetic Force Microscopy
(AFM/MFM) and magnetization measurements. The
resulting products are negatively charged, rounded
in shape and exhibit the superparamagnetic
properties what implies their potential applications
in engineering and biomedicine areas.

Generally, gold nanoparticles are produced in a liquid


("liquid chemical methods") by reduction of chloroauric
acid (H[AuCl4]), although more advanced and precise
methods do exist. After dissolving H[AuCl4], the
solution is rapidly stirred while a reducing agent is
added. This causes Au3+ions to be reduced to neutral
gold atoms. As more and more of these gold atoms
form, the solution becomes supersaturated, and gold
gradually starts to precipitate in the form of subnanometer particles. The rest of the gold atoms that
form stick to the existing particles, and, if the solution
is stirred vigorously enough, the particles will be fairly
uniform in size.

Methods to synthesize Gold Nanoparticles:


Turkevich method: Generally, it is used to produce modestly
mono disperse spherical gold nano particles suspended in
water of around 1020 nm in diameter. Larger particles can be
produced, but this comes at the cost of mono dispersity and
shape. It involves the reaction of small amounts of hot
chlorauric acid with small amounts of sodium citrate solution.
The colloidal gold will form because the citrate ions act as
both a reducing agent, and a capping agent.
Brust method: It is used to produce gold nanoparticles in
organic liquids that are normally not miscible with water (like
toluene). It involves the reaction of a chlorauric acid solution
with tetractylammonium bromide (TOAB) solution in toluene
and sodium borohydride as an anti-coagulant and a reducing
agent, respectively.

The gold nanoparticles will be 2 to 6 nm indiameter. NaBH4 is the reducing


agent, and TOAB is both the phase transfer catalyst and the stabilizing agent.
Martin Method: Generates naked gold nanoparticles in water by reducing
HAuCl4 with NaBH4. Even without any other stabilizer like citrate, gold
nanoparticles are stably dispersed. The size distribution is nearly
monodisperse and the diameter can be precisely and reproducibly tunable
from 3.2 to 5.2 nm. The key is to stabilize HAuCl4and NaBH4 in the aqueous
stock solutions with HCl and NaOH for >3 months and >3 hours
respectively. In addition, the ratio of NaBH4-NaOH ions to HAuCl4-HCl ions
must be precisely controlled in the sweet zone.
Sonolysis: process based on ultrasound, the reaction of an aqueous

solution of HAuCl4 with glucose, the reducing agents are hydroxyl


radicals and sugar pyrolysis radicals(forming at the interfacial region
between the collapsing cavities and the bulk water) and the morphology
obtained is that of nanoribbons with width 30-50 nm and length of
several micrometers. These ribbons are very flexible and can bend with
angles larger than 90. When glucose is replaced by cyclodextrin (a
glucose oligomer) only spherical gold particles are obtained suggesting
that glucose is essential in directing the morphology towards a ribbon