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Applications of sheet metal forming

1. Almirahs 2. Filing cabinets 3. Fan wings 4. Bodies of automobiles


Refrigerator and water coolers 6. Computer desktop bodies


Household appliances and utensils 8. beer and soft drink cans etc.

1. Low cost
2. Light weight

3. High strength
4. Good dimensional accuracy
5. Good surface finish
6. Possibility of large variety of shapes

Note: Sheet metal thickness varies from 0.5 mm to 6 mm. Most commonly used
sheet material is mild steel or low carbon steel. In aerospace applications Al
and Titanium are the common sheet materials.

Classifications of press tool operations

Stresses induced



Shearing, blanking and punching,

notching, nibbling and perforating


Stretch forming


Coining, sizing, ironing, hobbing

Tension and compression

forming, embossing


Shearing Action

1. As the punch starts, plastic deformation occurs around the punch

2. With further movement of punch, cracks start forming on both top and
bottom edges (T and T)
3. As punch descends further, these cracks grow and if clearance is
correct, cracks eventually meet each other resulting on separation of slug
from sheet.

Characteristic of cut in shearing

Factors affecting the edge quality of hole and slug

1. Punch force 2. Punch speed 3. Punch and die materials 4. the punch die
clearance and 6. lubrication

Calculation of clearances

C 0.0032.t.


Where, t = sheet thickness, mm

= material shear stress, MPa

Clearance is the major factor determining the shape and quality of the
sheared edge.
As clearance increases, the edge become rougher and zone of
deformation becomes larger.
The ratio of burnished area to the rough area on the sheared edge
deceases with increasing clearance
Burr height increases with increasing clearance.

Effect of clearance on shearing load and edge characteristics

If the clearance is optimum, two fracture lines from top and bottom of the
sheet meets and a clean edge is obtained.
If clearance is small, then fracture lines miss each other and a secondary
deformation takes place, resulting in an unclean edge and larger cutting
If it is large, drawing action takes place and quality of edge is again quite

Shearing operations
Piercing : 1. production of cylindrical hole in a sheet metal. 2. the material
punched out is the waste.
Punching : 1. similar to the piercing operation. 2. hole produced may be
any other shape.
Blanking : 1. the metal punched out is the required product. 2. the plate
with the hole left as waste.
Nibbling: a small punch is used to punch repeatedly along the necessary
contour, generating the required profile.
Slitting: is an operation to cut a coiled sheet metal length wise to produce
narrower strips.
Lancing: It makes cuts partway through the metal without producing any
Notching: material is removed from the side of the sheet metal.
Perforating: it is the operation of punching a number of holes in sheet

Shearing operations (contd.)









Simple blanking/ piercing die

Importance of angular clearance on die

after the final breaking,
the slug will spring back due
to release of stored elastic

this will make the blank to

cling to the die face unless
the die opening is enlarged.
It depends on the material,
thickness, and shape of the
stock used.
the normal value is from
0.25 to 0.75 deg/side.

Land: after every sharpening of the die the opening increases because of the provision
of the angular clearance. So, to maintain the die size as per the design die land/cutting
land is provided

Function of Stripper
due to the release of the stored elastic energy in the stock left on the die,

the stock tends to grip the punch as the punch moves upward.
this necessitates the use of a stripper to separate the punch from the stock.

depends on the material, size and position of the punched holes.

Punching force calculation

P ( Maximum force ) Lt
where P punching force (N), =shear strength of sheet metal (MPa)
L length of cut (mm)
Energy in press work (E) P punchtravel P K t C
K=percentage of penetration required to cause rupture
C=1.16=amount of extra energy required

How to reduce the shearing force on punch

to accommodate a component on a smaller capacity punch press

is to distribute the cutting action over a period of time

shear is relived of the punch or die face so that it contacts the stock
over a period of time rather than instantaneously
by providing the shear only reduces the maximum force to be applied
but not the total work done in shearing the component

Shear is provided on the die for blanking and on the punch for piercing

Types of Dies
1. Progressive die 2. compound die 3. combination die
A simple progressive die

It performers two or more

operations simultaneously in a
single stroke of punch press.
The place where each operations
are carried out called stations.
The stock moves from station to
When the strip finally leaves the
last station, a finished component is
The pilot is used to bring the stock
into the correct position for the
succeeding blanking or piercing

A compound die
It performers all the necessary
operations at a single station, in a
single stroke of the ram.

A compound die consists of the

necessary sets of punches and dies.
During the part of the stroke,
piercing of holes is done in the stock
and upon further travel, the blanking
operation is done.




Shallow drawing: cup

height is less than half
the diameter
Deep drawing: cup
height is greater than
half the diameter

Clearance in deep drawing is larger than that of blanking or punching operation.

C Blank thickness+thickening of sheet during drawing(12% of blank thickness)

Flow of metal in deep-drawing

The deformation of the sheet is
mainly in the flange and the cup
wall is subjected only to elastic
The punch transmits the
drawing force through the walls
of the cup and to the flange
being drawn into die cavity.
Material from flange moves
radially to the die cavity.


Processes involved in deep-drawing

Drawing of flange under friction between the die and blank holding
Bending of sheet at the die profile radius.
Slipping of sheet over the die profile radius.
Unbending of sheet into the cup wall.
Bending over punch profile radius.

Formation of wrinkling
Any flange section diameter is getting reduced while entering into die cavity.
Therefore the flange suffers circumferential compression. Due to this
compression, any element on the flange contracts in the hoop direction.
When any element of the flange lying at particular diameter moves towards the
die cavity, its thickness increases because it is being reduced in diameter.
Therefore, the outer most circumference has the maximum thickness (approx
12% larger than the blank thickness). These causes wrinkling.


Blank holding in deep drawing

Blank holding plate removes
wrinkling of the edges by
applying sufficient pressure to
the blank.
The excessive pressure will
however increase the frictional
stresses in cup wall (due to
increase in punch load) and may
lead to early fracture at punch
profile radius.
The tendency of wrinkle
decreases with increase in the
stock thickness.
If the ratio of punch diameter and stock thickness is quite small, tendency
of wrinkle is minimized.

Deep drawability/drawing ratio: maximum blank diameter (D)/diameter

of the cup drawn (d)------usually taken to be equal to punch diameter.
LDR (limiting drawing ratio): after which the punch will pierce a hole
instead of drawing the blank. Maximum drawing ratio is 1.6-2.3
The ratio depends on: (i) type of material, amount of friction present etc.

Draw die design

r=corner radius on
the punch, mm

Size of blank:

D d 4dh

D d 2 4dh 0.5r
D d 2 4dh r

h=height of the shell,


when d 20r

when 15r d 20r

when 10r d 15r

D (d 2r )2 4d (h r ) 2 r (d 0.7r )

d=outer diameter of
the shell, mm
D= blank diameter,

when d 10r

Percent reduction:

P 100 1

Theoretically, it is possible to get a percentage reduction up to 50, but, practically

limited to 40.

Reduction in drawing with cup height

Height to
dia ratio

No. of draws

Percent reduction
First draw


Third draw


Up to 0.75





0.75 to 1.50





1.50 to 3.00





3.00 to 4.50





1. Radius of draw die:

If the radius is too small, the resistance to the flow of metal increases
resulting in cutting or tearing of the metal.
If the radius is too high wrinkles can be formed as the metal is released
early by the blank holder.

rd 4 to 10 the stock thickness

2. Punch radius:
To avoid cutting or tearing the metal.
An excessive punch radius increases tendency of material to buckle.
When more than one draw is needed to give the final shape to the part,
the minimum punch radius should be 4 times the stock thickness.
The center point should be within the cup of the next draw.

3. Draw clearance:
It prevents from thickening of metal over the die radius when the flat
blank is drawn into die cavity.
Otherwise the blank may get jammed in the die cavity

Blank thickness,

First draw


Up to 0.38

1.07t to 1.09 t

1.08t to 1.1t

0.40 to 1.27

1.08t to 1.1 t

1.09t to 1.12t

1.30 to 3.18

1.1t to 1.12t

1.12t to 1.14t

3.20 and up

1.12t to 1.14t

1.15t to 1.2t

Drawing Force

P dts C

P=drawing force, N
T=thickness of the blank material, mm
S=yield strength of the metal, MPa
C=constant to cover friction and bending. Its value is between 0.6 and