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# Signed and Unsigned Numbers

## Unsigned Binary Numbers

Signed Binary Numbers
Most significant bit represents sign
0 represents a positive number
1 represents a negative number

2s Complement form

1s complement form
2s complement form

## Binary number 01101

1s complement 10010
+
2s complement 10011

(13)
1
(-13)

## Addition and Subtraction with 2s

Complement
0101
0010
0111

+5
+2
+7

0101
1110
0011

+5
-2
+3

1011
1110
1001

-5
-2
-7

1011
0010
1101

-5
+2
-3

2s complement vs. Signed
2s Complement
0101
+5
0010
+2
0111
+7
1011
1110
11001

-5
-2
-7

Signed Binary
0101
0010
0111

+5
+2
+7

1101
1010
10111

-5
-2
-7

2complement vs. Signed
0101
1110
10011

+5
-2
+3

0101
1010
1111

+5
-2
+3

1011
-5
0010 +2
1101 -3

1101
0010
1111

-5
+2
-3

Base 16
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
Representing Binary in compact form
11011000001102 = 1B06 H

Decimal Binary

Decimal Binary

0000

1000

0001

1001

0010

10

1010

0011

11

1011

0100

12

1100

0101

13

1101

0110

14

1110

0111

15

1111

16
10

24
18

32
20

17

11

25

19

33

21

18

12

26

1A

34

22

19

13

27

1B

35

23

20

14

28

1C

36

24

21

15

29

1D

37

25

22

16

30

1E

38

26

23

17

31

1F

39

27

11010110101110010110
1101 0110 1011 1001 0110
D
6
B
9
6

FD13
1111 1101 0001 0011

Indirect Method
Repeated Division by 16

Indirect Method
Sum-of-Weights

Carry generated
Borrow weight 16

Repeated Division by 16

Number

Quotient

Remainder

2096

131

131

Sum-of-Weights
CA02
(C x 163) + (A x 162) + (0 x 161) + (2 x 160)
(12 x 163) + (10 x 162) + (0 x 161) + (2 x 160)
(12 x 4096) + (10 x 256) + (0 x 16) + (2 x 1)
49152 + 2560 + 0 + 2
51714

Carry
+

1
2AC6
92B5
BD7B

6+5=11d Bh
C+B=23d 17h
A+2+1=13d Dh
2+9=11d Bh

Borrow
-

111
92B5
2AC6
67EF

21-6=15d Fh
26-C=14d Eh
17-A=7d 7h
8-2=6d 6h

## Octal Number System

Base 8
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Representing Binary in compact form
11011000001102 = 154068

Counting in Octal
Decimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Binary
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

Octal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Counting in Octal
Decimal Octal Decimal Octal
8
10
16
20
9
11
17
21

Decimal Octal
24
30
25
31

10
11
12
13
14
15

26
27
28
29
30
31

12
13
14
15
16
17

18
19
20
21
22
23

22
23
24
25
26
27

32
33
34
35
36
37

## Binary to Octal Conversion

011010110101110010110
011 010 110 101 110 010 110
3 2 6 5 6 2 6
1011011101001
1 011 011 101 001
001 011 011 101 001
1 3 3
5 1

## Octal to Binary Conversion

1726
001 111 010 110

Decimal-Octal Conversion

## Decimal to Octal Conversion

Indirect Method
Decimal Binary Octal
Repeated Division by 8

Decimal-Octal Conversion

## Octal to Decimal Conversion

Indirect Method
Octal Binary Decimal
Sum-of-Weights

Carry generated
Octal Subtraction
Borrow weight 8

Repeated Division by 8

Number

Quotient

Remainder

2075

259

(O0)

259

32

(O1)

(O2)

(O3)

Sum-of-Weights
4033
(4 x 83) + (0 x 82) + (3 x 81) + (3 x 80)
(4 x 512) + (0 x 64) + (3 x 8) + (3 x 1)
2048 + 0 + 24 + 3
2075

Carry

1
7602
+ 5771
15573

2+1=3d 3O
0+7=7d 7O
6+7=13d 15O
1+7+5=13d 15O

Octal Subtraction
Borrow
-

11
7602
5771
1611

2-1=1d 1O
8-7=1d 1O
13-7=6d 6O
6-5=1d 1O

Alternate Representations

BCD Code
Gray Code

Alternate Representations

Decimal
0
1
2
3
4

BCD
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100

Decimal
5
6
7
8
9

BCD
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001

## Multi-digit BCD numbers can be added together

23
0010 0011
45
0100 0101
68
0110 1000
23
0010 0011
48
0100 1000
71
0110 1011
1011 is illegal BCD number

## Add a 0110 (6) to an invalid BCD number

Carry added to the most significant BCD digit
23
48
71

0010 0011
0100 1000
0110 1011
0110
0111 0001

Alphanumeric Code

## Numbers, Characters, Symbols

ASCII 7-bit Code
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange
10 Numbers (0-9)
26 Lower Case Characters (a-z)
26 Upper Case Characters (A-Z)
Punctuation and Symbols
32 Control Characters

ASCII Code

Numbers 0 to 9
ASCII 0110000 (30h) to 0111001 (39h)
Alphabets a to z
ASCII 1100001 (61h) to 1111010 (7Ah)
Alphabets A to Z
ASCII 1000001 (41h) to 1011010 (5Ah)
Control Characters
ASCII 0000000 (0h) to 0011111 (1Fh)

Alphanumeric Code

## Extended ASCII 8-bit Code

Unicode 16-bit Code

Error Detection

## Digital Systems are very Reliable

Errors during storage or transmission
Parity Bit
Even Parity
Odd Parity

## Odd Parity Error Detection

Original data
10011010
With Odd Parity 110011010
1-bit error
110111010
Number of 1s even indicates 1-bit error
2-bit error
110110010
Number of 1s odd no error indicated
3-bit error
100110010
Number of 1s even indicates error