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Understanding Food

Chapter 25:
Cakes and Cookies

Types of Cakes
The majority of
cakes are:
Shortened
Unshortened

Chiffon

Types of Cakes
Shortened cake: A cake made with fat.

Types of Cakes
Unshortened cake: A cake made
without added fat.

Types of Cakes
Chiffon cake: A cake made by
combining the characteristics found
in both shortened and unshortened
cakes.

Mixing Techniques
Mixing is a general term that
includes beating, blending, binding,
creaming, whipping, and folding.
In mixing, two or more ingredients are
evenly dispersed in one another until
they become one product.

Mixing Techniques

Beat:
Blend:
Bind:
Cream:
Whip:
Fold:

Mixing Techniques
There are many methods for
combining the ingredients of cakes
and other baked products, but the
most commonly used are the
conventional creaming),
conventional sponge, single-stage
(quick-mix), pastry-blend, biscuit,
and muffin methods.

Mixing Techniques

Conventional (Creaming)
Method
The most time consuming, and is the
method most frequently used for
mixing cake ingredients.
It produces a fine-grained, velvety
texture.
The three basic steps are:
1.) Creaming
2.) Egg incorporation
3.) Alternate addition of the dry and moist
ingredients

Mixing Techniques
Conventional Sponge Method
Identical to the creaming method
except that a portion of the sugar
is mixed in with the beaten egg or
egg white, and the egg foam is
folded into the batter in the end.

Single-Stage Method
Also known as the quick-mix, onebowl, or dump method.
All the dry and liquid ingredients
are mixed together at once.
Packaged mixes for cakes,
biscuits, and other baked goods
rely on this method.

Mixing Techniques
Pastry-Blend Method
Fat is first cut into flour with a pastry blender,
or with two knives crisscrossed against each
other in a scissor-like fashion, to form a mealy
fat-flour mixture.
Half the milk and all of the sugar, baking
powder, and salt are then blended into the fatflour mixture.
Lastly, eggs and more milk may then be
blended into the mixture.

Mixing Techniques
Muffin Method
This is a simple, two-stage mixing
method.
The dry and moist ingredients are mixed
separately and then blended until the
dry ingredients just become moist.
Over-mixing will result in a tough baked
product riddled with tunnels.

Preparation of Cakes

Ingredients
proportion differ from bread
Flour
Sugar
Fat
Eggs
Milk
Leavening

Type of pans
Unshortened

Shortened

Preparation of Cakes
The timing of
pouring the cake
batter and getting it
into a properly
heated oven is
another important
factor in cake
quality.

Preparation of Cakes
When
shortened
cakes are
nearing
doneness,
they start to
wrinkle at
the pan edges.

Preparation of Cakes
When
unshortened
cakes are done
the surface is
lightly brown
and springs
back when
touched

Preparation of Cakes
Once the
shortened cake is
done, it should be
removed gently
from the oven and
allowed to cool on
a rack for 5 or 10
minutes.

Preparation of Cakes
As in bread preparation, cake ingredients must be modified at
altitudes higher than 3,000 feet.

Baking adjustments, pre and post

Storage of Cakes

The amount and type of


sweetener used in the
preparation of a cake
affects its ability to be
stored.

Cakes stale fairly quickly.

Types of Cookies
Not all fit neatly into
one classification.
The fluidity of the batter
or dough determines
which of the following
six categories cookies
fall into:

Bar
Dropped
Pressed

Molded
Rolled
Icebox/refrigerator

Types of Cookies

Dropped cookie batter is literally dropped onto the baking


sheet.
The batter contains just enough flour so the cookie will not
spread out like a pancake when it is dropped on the baking
sheet.

Preparation of Cookies
Mixing Methods
The type of cookie to be prepared
determines the mixing method, but for
most types the conventional cake method
is used.
Once the ingredients are chosen based on
whether a flat or puffy cookie is desired,
they are usually just barely mixed together
until moistened.

Storage of Cookies
Airtight containers are best
for maintaining cookie
freshness.
As soon as the cookies are
cooled they are transferred to
a flat dish or plate and
covered with plastic wrap or
metal foil.