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You are on page 1of 34

Introduction

Sine waves

Square waves

Measuring Voltages and Currents

Analogue Ammeters and Voltmeters

Digital Multimeters

Oscilloscopes

OHT 11.1

Introduction

11.1

periodically change their direction

OHT 11.2

Sine Waves

11.2

Sine waves

by far the most important form of alternating quantity

important properties are shown below

OHT 11.3

Instantaneous value

shape of the sine wave is defined by the sine function

y = A sin

in a voltage waveform

v = Vp sin

OHT 11.4

Angular frequency

frequency f (in hertz) is a measure of the number of

cycles per second

each cycle consists of 2 radians

therefore there will be 2f radians per second

this is the angular frequency (units are rad/s)

= 2f

OHT 11.5

the angular frequency can be thought of as the rate

at which the angle of the sine wave changes

at any time

= t

therefore

v = Vp sin t

or

v = Vp sin 2ft

or

i = Ip sin 2ft

similarly

i = Ip sin t

OHT 11.6

Determine the equation of the following voltage signal.

From diagram:

Period is 50 ms = 0.05 s

Thus f = 1/T =1/0.05 = 20 Hz

Peak voltage is 10 V

Therefore

v Vp sin 2ft

10 sin 2 20t

10 sin 126t

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.7

Phase angles

the expressions given above assume the angle of the

sine wave is zero at t = 0

if this is not the case the expression is modified by

adding the angle at t = 0

OHT 11.8

Phase difference

two waveforms of the same frequency may have a

constant phase difference

we say that one is phase-shifted with respect to the other

OHT 11.9

average value over one (or more) cycles is clearly zero

however, it is often useful to know the average

magnitude of the waveform independent of its polarity

we can think of this as

the average value over

half a cycle

or as the average value

of the rectified signal

Vav

1

0Vp sin d

Vp

cos 0

2Vp

0.637 Vp

OHT 11.10

OHT 11.11

the instantaneous power (p) in a resistor is given by

p

v2

R

Pav

where

R

v2

R

OHT 11.12

we use the square root of this quantity, namely the

root-mean-square voltage Vrms

where Vrms =

v2

i2

Vrms 1 V 0.707 Vp

p

2

I rms 1 I 0.707 I p

2 p

OHT 11.13

average power is similar to the corresponding DC

values

P

av

rms rms

av

av

rms

2

rms

OHT 11.14

Form factor

for any waveform the form factor is defined as

Form factor r.m.s. value

average value

Form factor

0.707 V

0.637 V

p

p

1.11

OHT 11.15

Peak factor

for any waveform the peak factor is defined as

Peak factor

peak value

r.m.s. value

V

p

Peak factor

1.414

0.707 V

p

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.16

Square Waves

11.3

value have the same meaning for all repetitive

waveforms

OHT 11.17

Phase angle

we can divide the period

into 360 or 2 radians

useful in defining phase

relationship between signals

in the waveforms shown

here, B lags A by 90

we could alternatively give

the time delay of one with

respect to the other

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.18

the average value of a symmetrical waveform is its

average value over the positive half-cycle

thus the average value of a symmetrical square wave

is equal to its peak value

V V

av

p

wave is either its peak positive or peak negative value,

the square of this is the peak value squared, and

V

V

rms

p

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.19

from the earlier definitions, for a square wave

V

p

Form factor r.m.s. value

1 .0

average value V

p

Peak factor

p

peak value

1.0

r.m.s. value V

p

OHT 11.20

11.4

when measuring voltage we connect across the component

when measuring current we connect in series with the component

OHT 11.21

11.4

measurement

our measuring instrument will have

an effective resistance (RM)

when measuring voltage we

connect a resistance in parallel

with the component concerned

which changes the resistance in

the circuit and therefore changes

the voltage we are trying to

measure

this effect is known as loading

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.22

11.4

measurement

our measuring instrument will have an

effective resistance (RM)

when measuring current we connect a

resistance in series with the

component concerned which again

changes the resistance in the circuit

and therefore changes the current we

are trying to measure

this is again a loading effect

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.23

11.5

ammeters are based on

moving-coil meters

see Chapter 4 of textbook

Meters are characterised by their full-scale deflection (f.s.d.)

and their effective resistance (RM)

typical meters produce a f.s.d. for a current of 50 A 1 mA

typical meters have an RM between a few ohms and a few kilohms

OHT 11.24

Measuring direct

currents using a

moving coil meter

use a shunt resistor

to adjust sensitivity

see Example 11.5 in

set text for numerical

calculations

OHT 11.25

Measuring direct

voltages using a

moving coil meter

use a series resistor

to adjust sensitivity

see Example 11.6 in

set text for numerical

calculations

OHT 11.26

moving coil meters respond to both positive and negative

voltages, each producing deflections in opposite directions

a symmetrical alternating waveform will produce zero deflection

(the mean value of the waveform)

therefore we use a rectifier to produce a unidirectional signal

meter then displays the average value of the waveform

meters are often calibrated to directly display r.m.s. of sine waves

all readings are multiplied by 1.11 the form factor for a sine wave

for example when measuring a square wave (for which the form factor

is 1.0, the meter will read 11% too high)

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.27

Analogue multimeters

general purpose instruments use a

combination of switches and resistors

to give a number of voltage and

current ranges

a rectifier allows the measurement of

AC voltage and currents

additional circuitry permits resistance

measurement

very versatile but relatively low input

resistance on voltage ranges

produces considerable loading in

some situations

A typical analogue multimeter

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.28

Digital Multimeters

11.6

referred to as digital voltmeters or DVMs

at their heart is an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC)

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.29

resistance is achieved using appropriate

circuits to produce a voltage proportional

to the quantity to be measured

in simple DMMs alternating signals are

rectified as in analogue multimeters to

give its average value which is multiplied

by 1.11 to directly display the r.m.s. value

of sine waves

more sophisticated devices use a true

r.m.s. converter which accurately

produced a voltage proportional to the

r.m.s. value of an input waveform

A typical digital multimeter

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.30

Oscilloscopes

11.7

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.31

OHT 11.32

OHT 11.33

Key Points

The magnitude of an alternating waveform can be

described by its peak, peak-to-peak, average or r.m.s.

value

The root-mean-square value of a waveform is the value

that will produce the same power as an equivalent direct

quantity

Simple analogue ammeter and voltmeters are based on

moving coil meters

Digital multimeters are easy to use and offer high accuracy

Oscilloscopes display the waveform of a signal and allow

quantities such as phase to be measured.

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems Pearson Education Limited 2004

OHT 11.34

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