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Job Analysis

It is a process of gathering, analyzing and structuring

about a jobs components, characteristics and

requirements ( Sanchez & Levine, 2000)
A process of determining the work activities and

What Aspects of a Job Are

Job Analysis should collect information on the
following areas:
Duties and Tasks
Tools and Equipment

Important Applications of Job


Q Job Description

Q Performance Appraisal
Q Job Evaluation
Q Job Design and Redesign

Observation & Participation

The process involves trained job analysts simply

watching incumbents perform their jobs and taking

Detailed notes on the tasks and duties performed

Use of video cameras recently

The job analyst actually performs the tasks to get first

had experience and understanding of how the job is


Job Analysis: Methods of Observation

The Observation method of Job Analysis is suited
for jobs in which the work behaviors are
1) observable involving some degree of movement
on the part of the worker, or
2) job tasks are short in duration allowing for many
observations to be made in a short period of time
or a significant part of the job can be observed in
a short period of time, or
3) jobs in which the job analyst can learn
information about the job through observation.

Job Analysis: Methods of Observation

Ability to obtain first-hand knowledge and
information about the job being analyzed.
Direct Observation allows the job analyst to see
(and in some cases experience) the work
environment, tools and equipment used,
interrelationships with other workers, and
complexity of the job.
Direct Observation of workers may be necessary to
support testimony if the worker and employer
disagree on requirements of a certain task.

Job Analysis: Methods of Observation

The presence of an observer may affect the worker
causing the worker to alter their normal work
Workers may alter their work behavior if they know
they are being observed.
This method is not appropriate for jobs that involve
significant amounts of time spent in concentration or
mental effort.

Existing Data
Large organizations have preexisting data
Previously conducted job analysis
Analysis of a related job
Job analysis conducted in other companies

Existing Data
you dont have to hunt down information, good
preliminary information to plan further data collection
information may not pertain to the particular job you
are analyzing

One- to one interviews with job incumbent,

supervisor, subordinates.
Structured or standardized

Allows the worker to describe tasks and duties that are
not observable.
The worker may exaggerate or omit tasks and duties.

Administration of paper-and-pencil questionnaires
Open-ended or closed-ended question
Is cost0effective
Can be conducted on a large number of people

Job Analysis: Survey Methods

Develop a questionnaire pertaining to relevant KSAOs

(Knowledge, Skill, Ability, and other

Characteristics)and/or tasks and administer to a large
number of job incumbents
Ratings may be gathered with regard to task difficulty,
relative amount of time spent on task, criticality of error,
importance for job success
Advantages: time is saved, relatively inexpensive,
assesses many perspectives
Disadvantage: incumbents may misrepresent job,
fatigue (from too many items) may limit the validity of

Job Diaries
Have job incumbents record their daily activities in a

Provides detailed, hour-by-hour, day-by-day account
It is time consuming

Job Diaries
Collects data as events happen.
Consistent and continuous entries may be difficult to
Data not in standardized format.

Job Element Method

A job analysis method that analyzes jobs in terms of

the knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAOs) required to

perform the job
The job element method of job analysis focuses on the
human attributes necessary for superior performance
on the job.

Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

A structured job analysis technique that examines the

sequence of tasks in a job and the processes by which

they are completed

Functional Job Analysis

Basic Procedure:
Break job down into tasks
Rate each task in terms of Data, People, and Things
Sum Scores to get a total composite on each dimension
Advantages: comprehensive and effective, suitable for a

wide variety of purposes

Disadvantage: can be time-consuming and expensive

Position Analysis Questionnaire

A job analysis technique that uses structured questionnaire

to analyze jobs according to 187 job statements grouped

into 6 categories
Information input
Mental processes
Work output (physical activities and tools)
Relationships with others
Job context (the physical and social environment)
Other job characteristics (such as pace and structure)

The PAQ is a structured job analysis questionnaire

developed by McCormick and associates at Purdue


Research Using PAQ

The PAQ has been used for job evaluation, selection,

performance appraisal, assessment-center

development, determination of job similarity,
development of job families, vocational counseling,
determination of training needs, and job design.
The PAQ has also been used to assess the validity of a
theory of how people choose vocations (Hyland &
Muchinsky, 1991)

Position Analysis Questionnaire

Advantages: can be used for any job, good method for

comparing jobs or classifying jobs, relatively

inexpensive and easy to use
Disadvantages: people may misrepresent their job, can
take a lot of time to administer, must be interpreted at
Purdue U., requires a high reading level

Critical Incidents Technique

A job analysis technique that relies on instances of

especially successful or unsuccessful job performance

It requires subject matter experts to identify critical
aspects of behavior or performance in a particular job
that led to success or failure

Critical Incidents Technique

Advantages: well suited for performance appraisal
Disadvantages: focuses on extreme behaviors rather

than typical behaviors, not applied very systematically

Uses of Job Analysis Information

1. Recruitment and Selection: Job analysis provides
information about what the job entails and what
human characteristics are required in order to perform
these activities. This information, in the form of job
descriptions and specifications, helps management
officials decide what sort of people they need to recruit
and hire and select.

Uses of Job Analysis Information

2. Compensation: Job analysis information is crucial for
estimating the value of each job and its appropriate
compensation. Compensation (salary and bonus)
usually depends on the job's required skill and
education level, safety hazards, degree of
responsibility, etc. -- all factors which can be assessed
through job analysis. Also, many employers group jobs
into classes. Job analysis provides the information to
determine the relative worth of each job and its
appropriate class.

Uses of Job Analysis Information

3. Performance Appraisal: A performance appraisal
compares each employee's actual performance with his
or her performance standards. Managers use job
analysis to determine the job's specific activities and
performance standards.
4. Training: The job description should show the
activities and skills, and therefore training, that the job
5. Discovering Unassigned Duties: Job Analysis can
also help reveal unassigned duties.