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Strength Training

Repetition: one complete movement of an

exercise (con/ecc)
Set: group of repetitions
Repetition Maximum (RM): maximum number
of repetitions that can be performed at a
resistance with proper technique; 1 RM
Power: rate of performing work, weight
lifted times the vertical distance it is lifted

%1-RM: a fraction of a 1-RM for training

prescription, i.e., intensity
Rep Tempo: speed or velocity of repetitions.
E.g., 2/4 rep tempo
Volume: total work performed during a specific
time period. Load X reps X sets

Strength: maximal amount of force

a muscle or muscle group can
generate in a specified movement
pattern at a specified velocity of

HR is not appropriate measure of

exercise intensity with resistance
Minimal intensity
to generate strength
gains is 60-65% of 1RM

Progressive Overload
increase the amount of weight lifted
use of RM
increase the training volume (number of
sets or repetitions)
easy to overtrain
especially with increases in training

Rest Periods
If goal is to improve performance
and power for short, intense
activities, rest period should be short
(< 1 min.)
One day of recovery is usually
recommended for a specific body

joint angle specific
must avoid Valsalva maneuver
Dynamic Constant External
Resistance (DCER)

Muscular contraction in which the
muscle exerts a constant tension
Not the type of contraction with freeweights (contrary to popular
Free-weight, the force varies
throughout the ROM
Recommendation of sets for health is

Variable Resistance
Equipment operates through a lever
arm or cam, attempt to match
resistance with changes in strength
throughout a ROM
No perfect machine out there yet,
cannot match ROM demands with
individual differences

Muscular action performed at a constant
angular velocity
Resistance is not controlled, only the
Theoretically, it is possible for the muscles
to exert a continual, maximal force
through the full ROM
Optimal number of sets is not clear
Training velocity should be between 180240/sec

Can do eccentric training on
machines by lifting a weight greater
than 1RM with both legs or arms and
then lowering it with one
Can do eccentric training on
isokinetic devices
Eccentric training can lead to
significant strength gains
not clear what appropriate volume
should be for strength gains and

Plyometrics or Stretch-Shortening
cycle exercises
20-30% of the difference between a
countermovement and a
noncountermovement may be explained
by the elastic energy
Elastic energy can be stored in tendons
and other connective tissue
Things to consider:

number of jumps
height of drop
weighted exercises
concurrent strength training
injury potential

2002 ACSM Position Stand

Novice or Preparatory Phase

50-70% 1RM (or estimated)
One exercise/group
1-3 set
8-15 reps
Rest varies for type of training

Development of Muscular Strength

90-100% of 1RM
3-4 exercise/group
1-5 sets
1-5 reps
3-5 min rest btwn sets

Development of Muscular
50-70% 1 RM
2-3 exercise/group
1-3 sets
No more than 15 reps (adv. 25+)
30 sec 1 min rest btwn sets
2-6X week

Development of Muscular
80-90% 1RM
3-4 exercise/group
1-4 sets
6-12 reps
1 min rest btwn sets

Development of Muscle Size

80-90% 1RM
4-6 exercise/group
4-8 sets
12-15 reps
30 sec 1 min rest btwn sets

variation in the volume and intensity
needed for optimal gains in strength
and power

Preparatory: high volume, low resistance
exercise (50-80% 1RM)
First Transition: increase strength,
moderate volume and intensity
Competition: Peak, selective strength
training, low volume, high intensity, with
intervals and sport-specific exercises
Second Transition or active recovery:
recreational activities and low intensity
resistance training , different exercise

Resistance Training for Special


Children (Fleck & Kreamer, 1997)

5-7 yr old: basics with little to no
weight, concept of a training session,
techniques are emphasized, volume
is low
8-10 yr old: gradually increase the
number of exercises, practice
technique for all lifts, keep exercises
simple, increase volume slowly,
monitor tolerance to exercise stress

11-13 yr old: teach all basic exercise

techniques, continue progressive
loading, emphasize technique,
introduce new exercises with little or
no resistance
14-15 yr old: progress to more
advanced resistance programs, add
sport-specific components,
emphasize technique, increase
16 and older: entry level into adult
programs after all background
experience has been learned

Pollock et al. (1994): 1 set, 10-15
RM, 8-10 exercises, 2 d/wk minimum
Fleck & Kraemer (1997): 4-6 large
muscle groups, 3-5 supplemental
small muscle groups, 80% of 1RM for
8 repetitions (most common), 3 sets,
2-3 minutes rest between sets, 3