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Ferdinand Edralin Marcos

Childhood Background
The man who ruled the Philippines with an
iron fist was born on September 11, 1917 in
Sarrat, a small town in Ilocos Norte. Named by
his parents, Mariano Marcos and Josefa
Edralin, after King Ferdinand of Spain,
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos

Childhood Background
He was a champion debater, boxer, swimmer and
wrestler while in the University of the Philippines.
As a young law student of the University of the
Philippines, Marcos was indicted and convicted of
murder (of Julio Nalundasan, the man who twice
defeated his father for a National Assembly seat).

Childhood Background
While in detention, he reviewed and topped the 1938 Bar
examinations with one of the highest score in history.
According to Former First Lady Imelda Marcos He (Pres.
Marcos) wanted to be the top of tops. So his record was
unprecedented in history. In bar history, he had 98.8, Many
said it is impossible, siguro nandaya yun (maybe he
cheated). He had to had an oral exam so that they (the
Supreme Court) *can+ revalidate (the score).
He appealed his conviction and argued his case before the
Supreme Court. Impressed by his brilliant legal defense, the
Supreme Court unanimously acquitted him.

During World War II

Marcos was called to arms in defense of the Philippines against
the Japanese.
He was a combat intelligence officer of the 21st Infantry division.
He fought in Bataan and was one of the victims of the infamous
Death March.
He was released later. However, he was re-incarcerated in Fort
He escaped and joined the guerilla movements against the
Japanese. He became one of the finest guerilla leaders in Luzon
and his greatest exploit was the Battle of Besang Pass though
many are questioning the veracity of his claims.
Because of his valiant bravery during the war, Marcos was
awarded with thirty-three medals, the most decorated soldier in
Philippine history.

During World War II

Post War Era

After the end of the war and the establishment of the
Republic, President Manuel A. Roxas appointed Marcos as
special technical assistant.
Later, Marcos ran as Representative (of the 2nd district of
Ilocos Norte) under the Liberal Party the administration
During the campaign he told his constituents Elect me a
Congressman now and I pledge you an Ilocano President in 20
years. He was elected thrice as Congressman.
In 1959 he was catapulted to the Senate with the highest
number of votes. He immediately became its Minority Floor
In 1963, after a tumultuous rigodon in the Senate, he was
elected its President despite being in the minority party.

When President Diosdado Macapagal reneged

on his promise not to run for reelection and to
support Marcos candidacy for the presidency
in the 1965 elections, Marcos resigned from
the Liberal Party. With the support of his wife
Imelda Marcos, he joined the Nacionalista
Party and became its standard-bearer with
Senator Fernando Lopez as his running mate.

Rise to Power
He won the election, and was sworn in on
December 30, 1965.President Marcos
promised economic development, improved
infrastructure, and good government to the
people of the Philippines. He also
pledged help to South Vietnam and the US in
the Vietnam War, sending more than 10,000
Filipino soldiers to fight.

Ferdinand Marcos was the first president to be

reelected to a second term in the Philippines. Whether
his reelection was rigged is a subject of debate.
Marcos required every business and classroom in the
country to display his official presidential portrait. He
also posted giant billboards bearing propagandistic
messages across the country.

A handsome man, Marcos had married the former

beauty queen Imelda Romualdez in 1954. Her glamour
added to his popularity.

Martial Law
Within weeks of his reelection, Marcos faced violent
public protests against his rule by students and other
citizens. Students demanded educational reforms; they
even commandeered a fire truck and crashed it into
the Presidential Palace in 1970.
The Filipino Communist Party reemerged as a threat.
Meanwhile, a Muslim separatist movement in the
south urged succession. President Marcos responded
to all of these threats by declaring martial law on
September 21, 1972. He suspended habeas corpus,
imposed a curfew and jailed opponents like Benigno
"Ninoy" Aquino.
This period of martial law lasted until January 1981.

Marcos the Dictator

Under martial law, Ferdinand Marcos took extraordinary powers for
himself. He used the country's military as a weapon against his
political enemies, displaying a typically ruthless approach to
Marcos also awarded a huge number of government posts to his
and Imelda's relatives.
Imelda herself was a member of Parliament (1978-84); Governor of
Manila (1976-86); and Minister of Human Settlements (197886).Marcos called parliamentary elections on April 7, 1978. None of
the members of jailed former Senator Benigno Aquino's LABAN
party won their races.
Election monitors cited widespread vote-buying by Marcos loyalists.

Martial Law was Lifted:

In preparation for Pope John Paul II's visit,
Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981.
Nonetheless, Marcos pushed through
legislative and Constitutional reforms to
ensure that he would retain all of his extended
powers. It was purely a cosmetic change.

Presidential Election of 1981

For the first time in 12 years, the Philippines held
a presidential election on June 16, 1981. Marcos
ran against two opponents: Alejo Santos of the
Nacionalista Party, and Bartolome Cabangbang of
the Federal Party.
LABAN and Unido both boycotted the election.
In proper dictator fashion, Marcos received 88%
of the vote. He took the opportunity in his
inauguration ceremony to note that he would like
the job of "Eternal President."

Death of Ninoy
Opposition leader Benigno Aquino was released in 1980
after nearly 8 years in prison. He went into exile in the
United States.
In August of 1983, Aquino returned to the Philippines.
Upon arrival, he was hustled off the plane, and shot dead
on the runway at the Manila Airport by a man in a military
The government claimed that Rolando Galman was the
assassin; Galman was immediately killed by airport security.
Marcos was ill at the time, recovering from a kidney
transplant. Imelda may have ordered Aquino's killing, which
sparked massive protests.

Marcos Falls
August 13, 1985 was the beginning of the end for Marcos. Fifty-six
members of Parliament called for his impeachment for graft,
corruption, and other high crimes.
Marcos called a new election for 1986. His opponent was Corazon
Aquino, the widow of Benigno.
Marcos claimed a 1.6 million vote victory, but observers found a
800,000 win by Aquino. A "People Power" movement quickly
developed, driving the Marcoses into exile in Hawaii, and affirming
Aquino's election.
The Marcoses had embezzled billions of dollars from the
Philippines. Imelda famously left over 2,500 pairs of shoes in her
closet when she fled Manila.
Ferdinand Marcos died of multiple organ failure in Honolulu on
September 28, 1989. He left behind a reputation as one of the most
corrupt and ruthless leaders in modern Asia.

Ferdinand Marcos as a Democratic

Ferdinand Marcos was originally a democratic
leader in the sense that he was democratically
elected in all his functions until and including
his second term as President of the
Philippines. But he became an autocrat when
he unconstitutionally had himself elected for a
third term, declared martial law and ruled by
decree, and stole billions of State funds and
stashed them away in personal off shore

Ferdinand Marcos as an Autocratic

A dictator who rule with an iron fist and allow
no-one to oppose him.
He was known for repressing dissent those
he believed were his political enemies were
imprisoned or even killed.
He did not allow freedom of the press and he
curtailed civil liberties.
He also used the military to help him control
the population.

Platform of Ferdinand Marcos

P-Peace and Order
L-Land Reform
E-Economic Development
D-Development of Moral Values
G-Government reforms
E-Educational Reforms
S-Social Service

Marcos of the Philippines. Manila: Department of Public Information, 1975
Mauricio, Luis R. Renato Constantino and the Marcos Watch. Quezon City: Karrel, Inc.,1986.
Pagoso, Cristobal M. Progress and Development. Manila: Rex Book Store, 1984.
Caoili, Manuel A. The Philippine Congress and the Political Order, Philippine Journal
of Public Administration, Vol.XXX no. 1 (January, 1986).
Caoili, Olivia C. The Batasang Pambansa: Continuity in the Philippine Legislative
System, Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXX, No.1 (January, 1986).
de Roos, Robert. The Philippines: Freedoms Pacific Frontier, National Geographic
(September 1966).
Moser, Dan. The Philippines: Better Days Still Elude An Old Friend, National
Geographic (March 1977).
Let the Marcos Truth Prevail.
Marcos, Ferdinand E. Todays Revolution: Democracy. Manila, 1971