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Elemental Balance

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**KRISHNA KUMAR KESHARI
**

(2014BT15)

ASHWANI KUMAR (2014BT14)

oxygen. Confining our attention to those compounds taken up or produced in significant quantity. hydrogen.Introduction Cell growth obeys the law of conservation of matter. All atoms of carbon. nitrogen and other elements consumed during growth are incorporated into new cells or excreted as products. we can write the following equation for aerobic cell growth: • Cells + medium + O2 (sometimes) → more cells + product + CO2 + H2O . if the only extracellular products formed are CO2 and H20.

and formulate nutrient medium. it can be used to compare theoretical and actual product yields. . check the consistency of experimental fermentation data.IMPORTANCE Metabolic stoichiometry (elemental balance) has many applications in bioprocessing: as well as in mass and energy balances.

g. CHaObNd is the chemical 'formula' for dry biomass. b. y = 6 and z = 0). a. we can write the following equation to demonstrate the elemental balance :--- CwHxOyNz+ a O2 + b HgOhNi → c CHaObNd + dH2O + eCO2 substrate nitrogen source dry biomass Where CwHxOyNz is the chemical formula for the substrate (e. HgOhNi is the chemical formula for the nitrogen source. x = 12. . c. for glucose w = 6. In a very simplistic interpretation of metabolism. d and e are stoichiometric coefficients. .

y+ 2a+ bh = cb + 2d + e z + bi = cd . elemental balances and solution of simultaneous equations C balance: H balance: O balance: N balance: w=c+e x + bg = ca + 2 e. i.Stoichiometric Calculation Coefficients can be evaluated using normal procedures for balancing equations.e.

Y (output / input) UNIT . 2 . Biomass Yield from O2 ie.Some basic terms Yields and yield coefficients. Y(x/s) Y(x/o ) 3. Y(p/s) 2. Product yield from substrate ie. Biomass Yield from substrate ie.g/g 1.

. A high RQ means that much CO2 is produced and hence the metabolism is operating at high efficiency.Some basic terms Respiratory quotient RQ =moles CO2 produced /moles O2 consumed = YCO2/O2 Provides information on the metabolic state of the cell.

The degree of reduction for the substrate. Degree of reduction for CO2. the number of available electrons is (4w + x. Therefore.2y .Some basic terms Degree of reduction : Defined as the number of equivalents of available electrons in that quantity of material containing 1 g atom carbon. .2y . Ys.3z)/w. is therefore = (4w + x .3z). for substrate CwHxOyNz . H2O and NH3 is zero.

Example Q.66O0.27N. Y(x/s).20 represents the biomass.5 substrate is converted into biomass .27N. .43. Production of single-cell protein from hexadecane is described by the following reaction equation: C16H34+ a O2 + b NH3 → c CH1.if 0. determine the stoichiometric coefficients. If RQ= 0. degree of reduction.20 + dH2O + eCO2 where CH1.66O0.

(1) H balance: 34 + 3b= 1.(2) O balance: 2a=0. ---------------------------(5) .Solution C balance: 16 = c+ d -------------------.27 c + 2d + e ------------(3) N balance: b = 0.66 c + 2e --------.43 = d/a.20 c --------------------(4) RQ: 0.

a = 12.3.2.13 c = 10. we will find --------------Stoichiometric coefficients.64.Solution By calculating eq.4 & 5 .37 e = 11. d = 5. 1. .36.48 b = 2.

is = (4 × 16 + 34) /16 = 6.Solution Degree of reduction The degree of reduction for the substrate.125 . Ys.

5 × (12 + 1 × 1.20) (12 × 16 + 1 × 34) = 0.27 + 14 × 0. Y(x/s) = g cells produced /g substrate consumed = 0.1028 g/g .Solution Biomass Yield from substrate ie.66 + 16 × 0.

M.REFERANCES: P. Doran .

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