You are on page 1of 27

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING/

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AGENCY

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING FOR


DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN INDONESIA :
Reviewing the 10 years progress

Togu Pardede
Deputy Director for Geology, Minning and Geothermal
Deputy of Natural Resource and Environment, BAPPENAS
Republic of Indonesia

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON THE 10 YEARS COMMEMORATION OF THE 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI
24-26 November 2014, Borobudur Hotel, Jakarta, INDONESIA

OUTLINE
1. Introduction
2. Disaster Management Policy in the National
Development Planning
3. Regulatory, Institutional, Budgeting /Investement
Framework on Disaster Management
4. Implementation DRR HFA and Post HFA in Indonesia
5. Example DRR activity
6. Conclusion

INTRODUCTION (Disaster Overview


in Indonesia)

INTRODUCTION
Increasing frequency of disasters has threaten development and investments
and causing casualties and economic losses that are not small

Geology condition of Indonesia ( sitting in the 3 active faults, ring of fire)


Disasters events 1300/year in average (flood, landslide,, earthquake).5.84
occurance of earthquake/day in 4 RS.

205 million of people living in risk of disaster (87% of population). 388


Districs/Municipal of 497 District/Municipal in high risk (78%), while
remaining (22%) are in medium risk. (IRBI 2014, BNPB)

Within ten years (2004-2014) damage and loss of big disaster reach Rp.167 T,
while the total spending of government for emergency response and
rehabilitation is Rp 102 T. (It can build 60 airport kualanamu, 15 Jakarta MRT)

The growth centers and economic centers are potential in risk.


Disasters significantly contributes to increase the gap in regional development
(increasing the poor, setback in development, lowering investor interest, etc)

The policy, legal or regulatory framework is not fully in place that makes
disaster risk reduction as normal part of the development process.

INDONESIA IS DISASTER PRONE COUNTRY


DISASTER RISK MAP OF INDONESIA, 2013

TSUNAMI RISK MAP


TSUNAMI RISK MAP OF INDONESIA, 2013

MAJOR CATASTROPHES IN RECENT DECADE


(2004-2014)
No.

Disaster Event

Date

Damages & Losses (Billion IDR)

Earthquake and Tsunami, Aceh

Dec 2004

41.400

Earthquake DIY & Central Java

May 2006

29.150

Mud Flod Sidoarjo

May 2006

7.300

Jabodetabek Flood , 2007

Feb 2007

5.184

Earthquake West Sumatera

Mar 2007

1.080,7

Earthquake - Bengkulu and West Sumatera

Sept 2007

1.790.9

Flood and Landslide East Java

Jan 2008

1.691.5

Earthquake in Tasikmalaya, West Java

Sept 2009

6.900

Earthquake, West Sumatera

Sept 2009

2.0867

10

Flash Flood in Wasior, West Pupua

Sept 2010

280,58

11

Earthquake and Tsunami in Mentawai Islands

Oct 2010

348,92

12

Mount Merapi Eruption

Oct 2010

3.628,71

13

Others

14

2004-2010

34.000

Jabodetabek Flood , 2013

Jan 2013

8.340

15

Earthquake in Aceh Tengah dan Bener Meriah

Jul 2013

1.356,6

16

Mt. Sinabung Eruption

Jan 2014

865

17

Flash Flood in Manado

Jan 2014

1.569,9

18

Mt. Kelud Eruption

Feb 2014

1.255,0

TOTAL

167.741,8

DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
(Long Term, Medium and Annually)

DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN INDONESIA

1 year

5 year

20 year

NATIONAL

LOCAL

National Long Term


Development Plan (NLTDP )

Local Long Term Development


Plan (LLTDP )

National Medium Term


Development Plan (NMTDP )

Local Government Medium


Term Development Plan
(LGMTDP )

Strategic Plan Line


Ministries/Sectoral

Strategic Plan Local


Government Agencies

National Government Annual


Work Plan

Local Government Annual Work


Plan

Ministry Annual Work Plan

Local Government Agency


Annual Work Plan

THE STAGES OD DEVELOPMENT IN LONG TERM


DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2005-2025

Reforming the NKRI,


developing an Indonesia
that is secure, peaceful,
just, and democratic,
with enhanced
properity.

consolidating
the reformed Indonesia,
increasing the quality
of human resources, pr
omotion of capacity bui
lding in science and tec
hnology,
strengthening of econo
mic competitiveness

Consolidating of devel
opment in a comprehe
nsive by emphasizing
attainment
of economic competiti
ve advantage based on
available natural reso
urces , quality of hum
an resources,
capability science and
technology

realizing an Indonesiat
hat is selfreliant, adva
nced, just, and prosper
ous through the accele
ration of development
in various fields by e
mphasizing the realiz
ed economic structure
that is more solid on
the basis of competiti
ve advantage in vario
us regions, and is sup
ported by
quality and competitiv
e human resources.

VISION & MISSION LONG TERM


DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2005-2025
(in accordance with disaster management)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

Creating a society, moral,


culture based on Pancasila
Realizing the highly
competitive nation
Realizing a democratic
society based on the rule
of law
Realizing secure, peaceful,
and united of Indonesia
Creating equal and
equitable development
Realization of Livability
and Sustainable Indonesia
Realizing Indonesia to
became independent,
advanced, powerful
maritime nation based on
national interests
Realizing an Indonesia
that has an important role
in the international
Community

1. Harnessing Renewable Natural


Resources.
2. Managing Natural Resources NonRenewable
3. Maintain Security Availability Energy
4. Maintaining and Preserving Water
Resources
5. Developing Potential of Marine
Resources
6. Increase the Value Added on
Utilization of Unique Natural
Resources Tropical Notice and
Managing the Diversity of Existing
Natural Resources in Each Region
7. Disaster Mitigation In accordance
with Indonesian Geological
Conditions
8. Controlling Pollution and
Environmental Degradation
9. Increasing Capacity Natural
Resources Management and
Environment
10.Increase Public Awareness to care
the Environment

Disaster Management in LTDP 20052025


In RPJPN 2005-2025, the development of disaster management is directed to
support the achievement of the mission and the main targets for :
1. Realizing Competitive Nations :
a. The development and utilization of science and technology , through the enhancement of
national science and technology capabilities in fulfilling the lives of the nation , and create
a sense of security , the role of science and technology necessary to anticipate and cope
with natural disasters .
b . Facilities and adequate infrastructure and advanced , through increased public
participation and partnership among stakeholders continue to be pursued not only
during disaster but also at the stage of disaster prevention and post- disaster recovery
2. Achieve a more equitable development and justice , including the poor and people living
in remote areas , disadvantaged and disaster areas .
3. Realizing Indonesia are balance and sustainable . Development is done by taking into
account environmental and including improving capabilities and implementation of early
detection as well as promoting and disseminating information on threats and vulnerability
to natural disasters to the public at an early stage .
4. Realizing Indonesian archipelago independent, advanced , powerful , and based on
national interests . Reduce disaster impacts of coastal and marine pollution , through the
development of disaster mitigation systems and the development of early warning system .

MEDIUM TERM DEVELOPMENT PLAN


2010-2014
RPJMN 2010-2014 has integrated disaster management efforts into the national policy to
be integrated into local development planning synergistically, and described in the annual
work plan in all units of local government work .
Governance and Bureaucracy Reform
Education
Health
Poverty Reduction
Food Security
Infrastructure
Business and Investment
Energy
Environment and Disaster Management
Disadvantaged, Border, Outer Islands and Post Conflict
Culture, Creativity and Technology Innovation

POLICY APPROACH IN MANAGING RISK IN


INDONESIA DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

Disaster Management Policy in the National


MediumTerm Development Planning
2010-2014
Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction as national and local
priority
Strengthening capacity of disaster management at national and
sub-national level,
Effective utilization of spatial management instrument for
disaster risk reduction policy framework
Encouraging the participation of civil society for disaster
management and disaster risk reduction as well as improving the
community resilience by adopting the local wisdom
Increasing the quality of delivery result of emergency and
humanitarian assistance
Acceleration of quality physical and livelihood recovery in the
disaster affected region

Regulatory, Institutional, Budgeting


/Investment Framework on
Disaster Management

REGULATORY & INSTITUTIONAL


FRAMEWORK ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Regulatory Framework
1.
2.
3.
4.

Law No 24 year 2007 on Disaster Management


Law No 26 year 2007 on Spatial Planning
Law No 27year 2007 on Small Islands and Coastal Management
Government Regulation (GR) No 21/2008 on DM Operations, GR
No 22/2008 on Funding & Management of Disaster Assistance, GR No
23/2008 on Participation of International Institutions and Foreign
Non-Government Institution in DM
5. Presidential Regulation No 8 / 2008 on NDMA (BNPB)

Institutional Framework
1. Establishment of BNPB in 2008
2. Establishment of BPBD in a number of provincial and
district / city levels
3. Establishment on National Platform on DRR
4. Establishment of Mitigation Forum (led by Ministry of
Marine Affairs and Fisheries)

Disaster Budget Alocation and Disaster


Risk Reduction Investment
Disaster risk reduction activities not consumptive activities , but rather
an investment , because the results can not be seen today , but in the
future
According to the Global Agreement, the funding support to DRR at least
includes:
1% of the total national budget,
10% of the total funding of the post disaster recovery budget; and
30% of the total funding of climate change related budget
the amount of the allocation of funding for State Budget (APBN) 2013
amounted to 0.9% for DRR, increasing compare to year of 2007 that of
0.7%. For the provincial budget on average only 0.38 % and
districts/city average less than 0.1 % .
It still need affirmative budget policy to reach 1% of the total APBN
every year.

Implementation DRR HFA


and Post HFA in Indonesia

DRR PROGRESS ON HFA 2005-2015 (5


PA, based on 22 HFA Indicator)
Global DRR Progress:
The Global Assessment Report (102 countries) : Significant Progress : PA No. 1 and 5 ,
Consistence Progress : 2 , Weak Progress : 3 and 4. ( Source : GAR 2009)

Indonesia DRR Progress:


Level
Progress

NO

PRIORITAS HFA

1.

Ensure that disaster risk reduction


is priority with strong institution

3.5

Identify, assess and monitor


disaster risks and enhance early
warning
Build a culture of safety and
resilience
Reduce the underlying risk factors

3.75

Strengthen disaster preparedness


for effective response
JUMLAH

3.5

2.

3.
4.
5.

Source: HFA Progress Report : Indonesia

3.25
3.25

Weak progress: HFA no.3 & 4


Significant progress : HFA No .2
5 Level Progress:
1 Minor progress with few signs of forward
action in plans or policy
2 Some progress, but without systematic
policy and/or institutional commitment
3 Institutional commitment attained, but
achievements are neither comprehensive
nor substantial
4 Substantial achievement attained but
with recognized limitations in capacities
and resources
5 Comprehensive achievement with
sustained commitment and capacities at all
levels
COMPARE WITH INVESTEMNT?

DRR INVESTMENT ON HFA 2005-2015


(based on National Budget)
Rp. Miliar

(%)

Rp. Miliar

(%)

Ensure that disaster risk reduction


is priority with strong institution

282

2,77

283

2,53

Line
Ministries
to involved
14

Identify, assess and monitor


disaster risks and enhance early
warning
Build a culture of safety and
resilience

479

4,70

618

5,52

16

133

1,31

118

1,05

12

BUDGET 2011

NO

HFA PRIORITY

1.
2.

3.

BUDHET 2012

4.

Reduce the underlying risk factors

8.449

82,79

9.394

83,74

5.

Strengthen disaster preparedness


for effective response

860

8,44

803

7,16

12

10.205

100,00

11.218

100,00

TOTAL
Sumber: Bappenas-UNDP, 2013

The biggest investment allocation (84 %) is used to implement the HFA priority
actions no. 4: reducing the factors underlying risk ;
The smallest allocation investment for priority action no.3: utilize the knowledge ,
innovation and education to build culture of safety and resilience

EXAMPLES OF DRR ACTIVITY:DRR


Based Village Planning

DRR based Village Spatial Planning in Acehs Recovery


Post Tsunami 2004

Donor`s contribution on VP in
Banda Aceh City Total: 63 villages

Within 2 years, 647 Village Spatial Plans (VP)


were made in Aceh Prov, 63 village plans in
Banda Aceh City as basic of reconstruction
projects.

UPLINK
9%

USAID
12%

ADB
6%
BRR
21%

3 multilateral agencies, 3 Bilateral donors, 3


INGO, as well as BRR supported all the resources
in making the plans. Each donor use their own
approaches

UNHabitat
9%
Mercy Corps
3%

CARE
3%
MDF-World
Bank
31%

GTZ
6%

The Village Plan/Community Action plan is


developed by the villagers assisted by thousands Donor's Contribution on VP in Aceh Province
planners and facilitators that had been dispatched
UP- USAID CARE GERMAN
MERCY
LINK
4%
0% RED CROSS
CORPS
at villages
UN
3%
The Village Planning process is complex due to
the characteristics of extreme situation (natural
and man-made disaster/conflict) and many
players/donors involved.
Lesson Learned for current/upcoming Village
Resilience Project (BNPB, MinKKP, MinSocial, Min
Env, MinKKDTDT, etc)

2%

HABITAT 2%
2%

ADB
9%

MDFREKOMPAK
13%

AusaidLOGICA
25%

GTZ
3%

Source Togu Pardede (2014) Politics in Spatial Planning Following Aceh Tsunami 2004 in Up coming
Book Spatial Planning Following Disaster, 2014

BRR
37%

23
23

EXAMPLE of VILLAGE PLAN: Lamjabat village (USAID model)


KETERANGAN

KAPLING TANAH PENDUDUK


01

NOMOR KAPLING
BATAS DESA
SALURAN/DRAINASE
PRIORITAS PEMBANGUNAN RUMAH
PEMILIK YANG MASIH HIDUP

DESA BLANG OI

AHLI WARIS

DESA COT LAMKUWEH

10

127

126

218

125

129

11

128
132

09

13

130
12
08

124

131

SAWAH

133
123

15
14

112

07
134

121

135
118

120
119

16
17

18

117
108

71
70

109

111

100

70

113

112

115

114

19

116
06

82
86
90

89

85

87

88

143

141

107

138

140

149

146

139

142

144

92

79

94

93

22

80

04

76

75

TK NEGERI

104 103

102

101

100

PUSKESMAS

74

96

99

SDN 49 BANDA ACEH

23
28

30

97
105

136

137

73

38

24

32

33

36

189

175

197

183

190

191 192

193

199

194

200

201

202

27

198
171 172

184

63

49

65

64

185

66

183

205

179

204

188
170

01

50

178

180

26

45

195

173

181

34

196

174

176

155

156

40

46

203

47

67

51

68

69

KEGIATAN

48

186

207

206

59

52
158

02

03
31

35

29
177
154

157
153

25

37

72

98

39
182
152

05

20

95
91

148
106

151

21

81

78

77
147 145
150

217

71

83

84

60
162

209

208
164
163

167

168

169

44

PEMETAAN LAHAN PERMUKIMAN


PENDUDUK DI KOTA BANDA ACEH
DAN ACEH BESAR

62

53

187

58

210

159

43

211

161
165

42

54

216

57

212
160

61

41

55

166

56
213

TIM PENDAMPING
SMP NEGERI 2
BANDA ACEH

SAWAH

JARINGAN JALAN EKSISTING


215

JALAN YANG RUSAK

Sebelum tsunami

SALURAN DRAINASE

Setelah tsunami

KUBURAN

DESA GAMPONG BLANG

100

200

300
SMU NEGERI 6 BANDA ACEH

Village land mapping : land title


DESA SURIEN

DESA GAMPONG BARO

220

214

WASTUWIDYAWAN
JUDUL GAMBAR

PETA EXISTING

LOKASI

Village Plan: land use

DESA LAMJABAT
KECAMATAN MEURAXA
KOTA BANDA ACEH
SKALA

Village Plan Draft: signed by head of village,BRR,resident representative

Profil Desa:
Housing Destroyed
Population before and
after (before 1670 after
240)

Proses:
3 months participation
process: socialization,
community land and risk
mapping, data collection,
Spatial Plan, Development
Scenario,
Plan Component :
- Village Land and Risk Map
- Vilage Spatial PLan
- Infrastructure plan
- Mitigation: Green Belt,
evacuation road, escape
building/hill,Sirine
- Village Development
Program (RPJMDesa)

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CHALLEGE IN


2015-2019
Geological disasters is still a threat and risk to national and regional
economic growth

The frequency and increasing the threat of catastrophic events of


climatology and climate change ; especially floods , landslides ,
tornados, and drought

Financing post-disaster recovery is still a burden on the central


government

Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in development in national and


sub national has not been fully implemented, so that the DRR
investment has not been a significantly impact.

The ineffectiveness of the performance of disaster management to


reduce vulnerability and disaster risk management

25

CLOSING REMARKS
1.

Since 2005 until recently, a significant evolution is made on disaster management in


Indonesia. Strengthening the capacity for disaster risk management is become one of the
GoI priority in the LTDP 2005-2025 in MTDP since 2005 to 2014, as well as Goverment
Annual work Plan.

2.

Disaster management agency has been established at central and provincial/district level to
lead and coordinate the pre-disaster, during and post disaster program implementation.

3.

The fact that disaster management has become national political commitment needs to be
advanced into integrating disaster management into the overall national and local
development planning as well as increasing DRR investement. Synchronize the planinig
the document, coordination among government at national and sub national is the key to
integrating disaster management into development

4.

Next RPJMN 2015-2010 more focus in building the resilience and reducing risk in risk
regions/areas-as well as in the growth centre. (Current and future risk)

5.

Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience contribut for Sustaining Human Progress
(HDR 2014).

6.

Post HFA 2016-2026 in Sendai March 2015 is crucial in promoting DRR in the next decade.
Important issues have to be promoted: Understanding disaster risk, Strengthening
governance to manage disaster risk , Preparedness for response, recovery and
reconstruction Build Back Better, Investing in social, economic and environmental
resilience.

THANK YOU