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Computer Architecture

CT063-3.5-2

Registers & Memory


Degree : Level-3

Prepared by: KNT First Prepared on: 31-1-14 Last Modified on: xx-xx-xx
Quality checked by: xxx
Copyright 2014 Asia Pacific University

Topic & Structure of the lesson

What is a Register?
Types of Registers
Operations of Registers
Memory

Register & Memory

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of the session you will be able to: describe a register
explain its operations
compare user visible registers (UVR) & user invisible
registers (UIR)
apply the idea of Status Flags for dynamic evaluation
of the ALU status.
calculate the current value of the PSW Register.
describe the type of memory

Register & Memory

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Key Terms you must be able to use


If you have mastered this topic, you should be
able to use the following terms correctly in your
assignments and exams: register
Accumulator, Base register, Counter register, Data
register
Program counter (PC)
Instruction register (IR)
Memory address register (MAR)
Memory data register (MDR)
PSW
flag registers
Register & Memory

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CPU Architecture
The function of the CPU is to:
fetch instructions (from memory)
interpret instructions (decode them to determine
action)
fetch data (instruction execution may need operands
from memory)
process data (perform arithmetic operation)
write data (results are stored back in memory)
Register & Memory

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CPU Architecture
The CPU has three important parts: Control Unit - to fetch & decode instructions
ALU to perform arithmetic(*/+-) and logical operations
(and,or,not)
Registers to store temporary data

Another critical
aspect of CPU
architecture is
number and design
of registers

Control
Unit

ALU

CPU
High Speed Registers

Register & Memory

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What is a Register?
Small, permanent storage locations within
the CPU used for a particular purpose.
Manipulated directly by the Control Unit.
Wired for specific function.
Size in bits or bytes (not MB like memory).
Can hold data, an address or an
instruction.

Register & Memory

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Why Registers?
CPU must have some working space (temporary
storage)
CPU can't directly perform arithmetic in memory
E.g. if you want to add 1 to a memory location, the processor will
normally do this by loading the initial value from memory into a
register, adding 1 to the register, and then saving the value back
to memory.

This of course happens very quickly and transparently to


the programmer
Scratchpad for currently executing program.
used to hold data that must be accessed by the CPU very
quickly

Register & Memory

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Why Registers?
Stores information about status of CPU and
currently executing program.

Hold data being processed.


Hold an instruction to be executed.
Hold a memory address.
Hold status codes.

Register & Memory

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Register Operations

Registers are also used for:

1.

Storing values from other locations.

The register can be loaded with values from other registers


or from memory locations.
This operation overwrites previous value stored in the
register

2. Addition and subtraction.

Data from either other register or memory location can be


added to or subtracted from the value stored in the register,
leaving a sum or a difference in the register

3. Shifting or rotating data.

Register & Memory

Data in the register can be shifted or rotated right or left by


one or more bits.
The shift operation is used to implement multiply and divide
arithmetic operations

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Arithmetic Shift

Register & Memory

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Register Operations

Registers are also used for:4. Testing contents for conditions such as
zero or positive.

Register & Memory

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Register Organisation
A processor includes both
User Visible Registers
(UVR)
visible to programmer
may be general purpose
or have a special use
User Invisible Registers
(UIR)
used solely by the CPU
and special O/S
functions
are used to control the
operation of the CPU.
Register & Memory

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Register Organisation

General purpose registers:


can be used for any operation; hold address
as well as data.
Hold intermediate results or data values, for
example, loop counters.
Early computers had only one, the
accumulator.
Typically several dozen in current CPUs
Numbers limited by cost versus ability to
make use of greater numbers.
Register & Memory

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User Visible Registers


While General Purpose Registers can be used by most
instructions, they may be optimised for specific
operations, such as the accumulator.
If registers are specialised then their use will be implicit
and need not be mentioned in the instruction. This
means the instruction will be shorter and less memory
required.
Example: Data Registers : some instructions expect to use certain
registers to hold data such as; MUL CX whereas the other
operand is assumed to be in AX and result will be placed in AX.

Address Registers : Stack Pointer, Segment Pointer, and


Index Pointer.
Register & Memory

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x86 General Purpose Registers

16bits
Accumulator
Base
Counter
Data
Base Pointer
Stack Pointer
Source Index
Destination Index
Register & Memory

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AX
BX
CX
DX
BP
SP
SI
DI

User Invisible Registers (UIR)


Every processor contains some special purpose
or control registers. These are generally
contained within the control unit. Several
important ones are:

Program Count Register (PC)


Instruction Register (IR)
Memory Address Register (MAR)
Memory Data Register (MDR)
Status/Flag Registers

Register & Memory

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Program Counter (PC)


Program Counter (PC)
Also called instruction pointer (IP).
Contains the address of the next instruction
to be fetched from memory; it is automatically
updated by the CPU during Fetch/Execute
cycle.
May be forced to change: for example a
jump instruction.
Usually initialise to zero when machine starts,
or is reset.
Register & Memory

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Instruction Register (IR)


Instruction Register (IR)
copy of the current instruction being executed.
stores instruction fetched from memory.

Register & Memory

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Instruction Register (IR)


A dedicated register in the CPU which contains the
actual current instruction.

Op Code
What To Do

Address

Location of Data
1101 101101100100

Simple 16-bit example:

Register & Memory

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MAR and MDR


Memory Address Register (MAR)
holds address of memory location and connected to address bus
Contains Address in memory to find or place data.

Memory Data Register (MDR)


also referred to as the Memory Buffer Register (MBR).
holds data being transferred to/from memory - connected to data
bus
Contains Actual Data to be placed in location given in MAR, or
which has been retrieved from location given in MAR.

The MAR & MDR are used for data exchange between
memory and the CPU.

Register & Memory

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Status / Flags Registers


Status/Flags Registers
sometimes called Program Status Word (PSW)
Registers.
contain individual bit fields indicating status
information from program execution, often error
conditions.
shows status of CPU and currently executing
program.
Flags (one bit Boolean variable) to track condition like
arithmetic carry and overflow, power failure, internal
computer error.
Register & Memory

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Program Status Word (PSW)


Types of Status Flags (1- bit Cells)
Sign Flag

This Flag is set (assigned a value of 1) if the


result of the arithmetic operation is negative.
Otherwise it is reset (assigned a value of 0).

Zero Flag

Register & Memory

This Flag is set (assigned a value of 1) if the


result of the arithmetic operation is zero.
Otherwise it is reset (assigned a value of 0).

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Program Status Word (PSW)

Types of Status Flags (1- bit Cells)


Half-Carry (HC) Flag

This Flag is set (assigned a value of 1) if there is


a carry from the HSB (Half Significant Bit
position). Otherwise it is reset (assigned a value
of 0).

Carry (C) Flag

Register & Memory

This Flag is set (assigned a value of 1) if there is


a carry from the MSB (Most Significant Bit
position). Otherwise it is reset (assigned a value
of 0).
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Program Status Word (PSW)


Types of Status Flags (1- bit Cells)
Overflow (V) Flag

This Flag is set (assigned a value of 1) if there is


a carry from the MSB (Most Significant Bit
position or the MSB -1) Bit positions but not
both. Otherwise it is reset (assigned a value of
0).

Parity (P) Flag

Register & Memory

For Even Parity, this Flag is set (assigned a


value of 1) if the number of 1s in the result
inclusive of parity is even. Otherwise it is reset
(assigned a value of 0).
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Program Status Word (PSW)


Example
A 16bit PSW
Each position is a binary value representing
a true/false condition.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
S 0 0 P 0 1 Z HC 1 1 0 C 1 0 V 1
PSW

Register & Memory

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Condition Codes Register


Example:
Given that the current ALU operation on two 8-bit operands,
12 and 16 is Addition, encode the value of the following 16-bit
Program Status Word (PSW), using hexadecimal notation.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
S 0 0 P 0 1 Z HC 1 1 0 C 1 0 V 1
PSW

Solution:
a) Represent the operands using 8-bit signed 2s complement
representation.
b) Perform the operation (Addition) and compute the result.
c) Find out the values of the binary Flags: S, Z, HC, C, P, V
d) Fill in the entries in the PSW Register.
e) Encode the Register contents using hexadecimal notation.
Register & Memory

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Condition Codes Register


Decimal Binary
12
00001100
16
00010000

Decimal 2s Complements
12
11110100
16
11110000

11110100
+ 11110000
111100100

Register & Memory

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00011011
1
00011100

Memory Organisation
Computer systems employ a memory
hierarchy.
At higher levels, memory is faster,
smaller & more expensive.
Within the CPU, there is a set of registers
that function at a level above main
memory & cache in the hierarchy.

Register & Memory

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Memory Organisation - Hierarchy

Register & Memory

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Registers vs Main Memory


Registers that is faster and smaller than main
memory.
Temporarily stores data during processing.
Each register is wired to perform its specific
role.
Unlike memory, where every address is just like other
addresses, each register serves a particular purpose.

Registers are not addressed directly as a


memory location but are manipulated directly
by the control unit.
Register & Memory

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Cache Memory

Generally speaking
The CPU asks for data/instructions from
memory faster than it receives from them.
This type of waiting is bad for performance

Much of the time data and instructions are


used over and over. (e.g. loop)
Sometimes you can predict what
instructions are next
Register & Memory

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Cache Memory
We can use these tendencies to advantage by keeping
likely to be referenced (soon) data in a faster memory
than main memory.
This faster memory is called a CACHE.
It is located very close to the processor.
It contains COPIES of PARTS of memory.

CPU

Main Memory

Cache

Question: Where does the data from cache go to?

Register & Memory

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Desktop, Drawer, and


File Cabinet Analogy
Once the working set is in
the drawer, very few trips to
the file cabinet are needed.
Access cabinet
in 30 s

Access drawer
in 5 s

Register
file

Access
desktop in 2 s

Cache
memory

Main
memory

Items on a desktop (register) or in a drawer (cache) are more


readily accessible than those in a file cabinet (main memory).
Register & Memory

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Memory Organisation

Register & Memory

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The Operation of Memory


Main memory consist of cells, each of
which can hold a single value and each of
which has a single address.
The MAR & MDR acts as an interface
between the CPU & memory.

MDR is also called memory buffer register.

The MAR holds the address to be


opened.
The MAR is connected to a decoder that
interprets the address and activates a
single address line into the memory.
Register & Memory

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The Operation of Memory


The output from the MAR is passed to the
address decoder.
The row of memory cells corresponding to
the decoded address will be activated.
The MDR will read this group of cells.

Register & Memory

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Memory Capacity
Memory Capacity is the maximum number
of addressable memory locations.
Let the size of the address be k bits and
the number of addressable memory
locations be M locations.
Then => M = 2k locations
If each location can accommodate B bytes,
then memory capacity in bytes is (2k * B).
Register & Memory

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Memory Capacity

2n x m
n - address bits = 2n addresses
m - data bits
m - the width of the data path
Typical values: n: 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, etc.
m: 8, 16, 32, 64

Register & Memory

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Types of Memory

Register & Memory

Magnetic Core Memory


Static RAM
Dynamic RAM
ROM
P-ROM
E-PROM
EE-PROM

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Types of Memory

Register & Memory

Magnetic Core Memory


Static RAM
Dynamic RAM
ROM
P-ROM
E-PROM
EE-PROM

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Types of Memory

Register & Memory

Magnetic Core Memory


Static RAM
Dynamic RAM
ROM
P-ROM
E-PROM
EE-PROM

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Memory Slots

More RAM = Better Performance!


Register & Memory

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SRAM v DRAM Summary


SRAM

DRAM

Faster

Slower

More complex

Simpler to build

No refresh

Needs refresh

More expensive

Less expensive

Cache

Main memory

Smaller

Larger

Register & Memory

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Types of Memory

Register & Memory

Magnetic Core Memory


Static RAM
Dynamic RAM
ROM
P-ROM
E-PROM
EE-PROM

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Types Of Memory

Register & Memory

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Quick Review Questions


1. What is a register? Describe briefly the
operations of registers.
2. Why are there two different registers(MAR and
MDR) associated with memory?

Register & Memory

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Quick Review Questions


1. What are the differences between registers,
cache and main memory?
2. In what order does the Processor search for
data or instructions?
3. What are the two (2) major types of RAM?
4. What are differences between the two types of
RAM?
5. For what parts are the 2 types of RAM used?

Register & Memory

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Quick Review Questions


1. How many bits of memory are contained
in a memory unit with 512KB of memory
locations?
2. How many bits of memory are contained
in a memory unit with 2MB of memory
locations?
3. One large modern computer has a 36 bit
memory address register. How much
memory can this computer address?
Register & Memory

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Answers
Q1
512 = 29, K = 210, B = byte = 8bits = 23
29 x 210 x 23 = 222 = 4,194,304 bits

Q2
2 = 21, M = 220, B = byte = 8bits = 23
21 x 220 x 23 = 224 = 16,777,216 bits

Q3
MAR = 36bits
Total addressable locations = 236 = 68719476736 =
64GB

Register & Memory

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Quick Review Questions


Critically assess the four categories of
computer data storage in terms of
application, performance, speed and cost
with an appropriate block diagram.

Register & Memory

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Answers

Memory organization in a computer

Register & Memory

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Quick Review Questions


Explain the registers below:
AX
BX
CX

DX

Register & Memory

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Summary of Main Teaching Points


Registers
Within the CPU, the most important
components are registers.
Two types of registers are Visible and
Invisible registers.

Register & Memory

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Summary of Main Teaching Points


Memory Organisation
The operation of memory is intimately related to
two registers in particular, the memory address
register and memory data register

Register & Memory

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Question and Answer Session

Q&A
Register & Memory

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