7 steps to successful advertising

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 1: Think about what it is like to be a consumer of your brand and behave like one at all times.
– Unless you can truly think like your consumer, you will always be a poor judge of advertising. – Listening to consumers via qualitative research can definitely help here.

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 2: Focus on the proposed execution. Check it against the strategy later
– The consumer does not get to read the strategy, so nor should you. – Ask for the precise strategic aim of the advertising only after the execution has been presented. That way his evaluation is not biased by prior expectations.

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 3: Imagine you are watching/ hearing/reading the advertisement half-asleep
– Consumers do not sit up and pay attention when your advertising comes onto the television – Consumers process almost all television advertising passively, using what is called ‘low-involvement processing’ – LIP is done mainly by the right hemisphere of the brain – The right brain is emotional but not analytical. It records the elements in the advertising and stores them along with the feelings they create. – If we see a dog in a Hutch advertisement we record it as a cute, loveable dog, we do not analyse rationally what relevance it has to mobile phones.

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 4: Mentally record all the elements that seem likely to stand out, and ask yourself what they say about the brand
– Think of these elements as the concrete associations that will ultimately define your brand. This is what the consumer will recall about your ad, and use to define your brand in their minds. – The puppy is what people associate with Andrex. It carries with it the idea of softness and caring family values. – But sometimes it can go wrong. The 1996 Peugeot 406 advertisement, featured the track ‘Search for the hero inside yourself’. Within in it was a sequence showing a girl in a red dress in danger of being run over by a skidding tanker: three years later that is what most people recall from this ad. This is an undeniably negative association

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 5: Recognise that creativity does not cease once the script or layout is presented
– It is often at the execution stage where the most important associations in advertising are added. The Hamlet music was never part of the original script submission. – All these have grown to be associations that fundamentally influence and effectively define these brands to consumers.

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 6: Consistency is key. Recognise what is a valuable association and hang on to it
– Concrete associations are what define brands in people’s minds, and often they are the only competitive advantage a brand has. You sacrifice them at your peril. – Fosters in the late 1980s decided the comedian Paul Hogan was getting too old to be used to advertise a lager aimed at young men. Since then they have run countless different campaigns, and wasted untold sums of money, but still the main thing associated with Fosters in people’s minds is Paul Hogan.

7 steps to successful advertising
• Step 7: Tie brand associations to brand equity measurements
– This is the final piece of the jigsaw research that elicits brand associations and links them to various different quantitative measures of brand equity. Forget advertising awareness, copy-point recall and the other conventional measures of advertising claims – most of these are no more than hygiene measures.

Managing the Creative Process

What is Good Advertising

What is good advertising
“An ad whose public is not “An ad whose public is not only strongly sold by it, only strongly sold by it, but that both the public and but that both the public and the advertising world the advertising world remember it for a long time remember it for a long time as an admirable piece of work” as an admirable piece of work”
Leo Burnett

Be Liked
“Ads are like people … You can see most people a hundred times and not remember them, but meet someone you like once, and you will never forget them”
Sir Frank Lowe

How do you get good advertising?
• • • • • Client/Agency Relationship Creative Briefing Receiving & Evaluating Understanding how it works Idea vs. Execution

Advertising Idea vs. Execution

Brand Positioning

“The niche in the target consumers’ minds and/or hearts that the brand wants to own”

Brand Positioning Statement
To ABC x is the Brand of y which delivers z [target audience] [Brand name] [Category Need] [Benefit]

Price Product Performance

Rational

BRAND POSITIONING

Emotional

User Usage

Need

Successful ownership
• Single-minded • Consistent

Positioning Limitations
• Despite positioning, brands still lose their way • The transition from positioning through brief to execution causes this • Positioning is a poor discipline for advertising consistency • Advertising Idea is a good one • It is the discipline the creative department uses

Advertising Idea
“An Advertising Idea is derived from the Brand’s Single-Minded Proposition and its Key Consumer Insight. It is a creative thought which propels a campaign. The idea can be executed in many ways although it itself contains no executional detail. All Advertising Executions for the Brand should execute the Advertising Idea’s creative thought, so that all share that thought, which remains consistent over time. Hence the advertising Idea itself can last for many years, while different executions of it keep it relevant and fresh to today’s market place.”

Execution
“An Execution is the way in which the creative thought of the Advertising Idea has been expressed (or executed) in any particular advertisement. It is a rendering in words, sounds, pictures, symbols, colors, shapes, forms, or any combination of these, of an Advertising Idea.” A series of executions of the same Advertising Idea form a campaign.

Axe Campaign (1998-2004)
LYNX 1998 AFRICA 1998 LYNX 1999 LYNX 2000

DEO 2001

DEO 2002

DEO 2002

DEO 2002

SHAVE 2002

DEO 2003

NEW-D 2003

DEO 2004

Volkswagen
Positioning
Reliability

Key Consumer Insight
Reliability is unusual. Most people’s experience of the world is that things generally go wrong if they can

Single-Minded Proposition
VW is the most reliable car in its class

Support
1. Air cooled engine so no frozen pipes 2. ‘What Car’ consumer survey

Advertising Idea
Reliability in an unreliable world

Executions
Weather Breakdown Life Earring Relationships

Executional Properties
“An element of the execution of an Advertising Idea which is particularly powerful, memorable, and distinctive. It may be a symbol, sign, gesture, character, piece of action, form of words, snatch of music, etc. etc.”

Tums
Positioning
Antacid with Calcium In a world of irresistible rich foods, antacids are a necessary evil. But calcium is a necessary good : your body needs it

Key Consumer Insight

Single-Minded Proposition
Relieves indigestion and heartburn with Calcium Carbonate

Support
1. The only active ingredient in Tums is Calcium 2. Major competitors use aluminum/magnesium Relieves indigestion and heartburn with something your body needs

Advertising Idea Executions

Ingredients Waitress You’ll love the Tums Health Food So she says/Fire

Ribena

Healthy drink kids love most & mums prefer to give

Positioning

Key Consumer Insight
Mums worry about artificial ingredients in their kid’s diets

Single-Minded Proposition
Natural (Vitamin C) goodness

Support
No artificial sweetners, colours, or flavours. Made from (fresh) blackcurrants which are full of Vitamin C Animated blackcurrants which personify the goodness and vitality of Ribena

Advertising Idea

Executions
Health Bank Tea Party Cyberries

Qualities of Advertising Ideas
• Excellent discipline for consistency over time • Capable of many executions • Become familiar to consumer • Become valuable Brand assets

How do you get good Advertising Ideas

Key Consumer Insight
An insight is the discovery of a deeply felt human truth that creates a powerful personal connection between a brand and a consumer. It is also the springboard for great creative.

Example: Axe
Business Issue: • Axe sales static due to ageing brand profile and failure to recruit amongst teenage males and “dad” brand image. Communications Challenge: • To emotionally re-connect with youth. The Trigger Question: • What does the target audience dream of

Key Consumer Insight “Every man dreams of a woman making the first move”

Example: French Lottery
Business Issue: • Less people playing the lottery because new games seems more exciting to play Communications Challenge: • Bring players back by putting the fun back into playing The Trigger Question: • What would a fanatic say?

Key Consumer Insight “When you play you can dream of changing your life”

Key Consumer Insight

Category

Cultural

Universal

Single-minded proposition
Single-Minded Proposition

Product Belief Product Performance
Something the product actually does Something consumers believe about the Brand (which may or may not be true in reality)

Product Assertion
Something the Brand asserts to be true (and makes it so through investment over time)

Single-Minded Proposition

+

Key Consumer Insight

Advertising Idea

Key Consumer Insight
(Universal, Cultural or category)

+ (Performance, Belief,
or Assertion)

Single-Minded Proposition

Advertising Idea

Eg: Volkswagen:
The world is a pretty unreliable place: If things can go wrong they generally do

+

VW is the most reliable car in its class

Reliability in an unreliable world

Key Consumer Insight
(Universal, Cultural or category)

+ (Performance, Belief,
or Assertion)

Single-Minded Proposition

Advertising Idea

Eg: Fox Ice Hockey:
If other sports were violent like Fox Ice Hockey they’d be much more exciting to watch

Violence is exciting

+

Fox Ice Hockey is really exciting to watch

Key Consumer Insight
(Universal, Cultural or category)

+

Single-Minded Proposition
(Performance, Belief, or Assertion)

Advertising Idea

Eg: Tums:
Relieves indigestion and heartburn with Calcium Carbonate Relieves indigestion and heartburn with something your body needs

Your body needs Calcium

+

Key Consumer Insight
(Universal, Cultural or category)

+

Single-Minded Proposition
(Performance, Belief, or Assertion)

Advertising Idea

Eg: Ribena:
Mums worry about artificial ingredients in their kid’s diets Animated blackcurrants which personify the goodness & vitality of Ribena

+

Natural (Vitamin C) goodness

Key Consumer Insight
(Universal, Cultural or category)

+ (Performance, Belief,
or Assertion)

Single-Minded Proposition

Advertising Idea

Eg: Courtyard Hotels:
Courtyard Hotels are designed by business people to give business people a better night’s sleep

Lack of sleep impairs performance

+

Non-Courtyard business patrons perform badly

Key Consumer Insight
(Universal, Cultural or category)

+

Single-Minded Proposition
(Performance, Belief, or Assertion)

Advertising Idea

Eg: IBM:
IBM isn’t IBM can tailor its interested in the products to match your computing individual computing needs needs requirements whatever they are of the little guy

+

‘Little Guy’ IBM fans

Single-Minded Proposition

+

Key Consumer Insight

Advertising Idea

The Creative Brief

Better Briefs = Better Ads
Time to brief vs Time to rework Less is more

Creative Brief

Creative Thinking

Creating a good Creative Brief
• • • • • • Time Involve others Single-Minded Proposition Relevant Consumer Insight Less is more Interesting

Creative Brief Performa
1. Advertising Requirement 2. Major Issue the Advertising Must Solve 3. Creative Strategy
Market description, Target Audience, Key Consumer Insight, Single-Minded Proposition, Support, Brand Personality

4. Ideal Consumer Response 5. Advertising Idea 6. Mandatory Executional Requirement, if any
Key properties, Local/Regional/Statutory constraints, Other

7. Budgets
Production Budget, Media Budget, Suggested Time Lengths / Space size

8. Competitive Context 9. Planned Pre-Testing

• Advertising Requirement: Requirement
– What do we physically want the agency to produce?

• Major Issue the Advertising must solve: solve
– Choose one and be realistic!

• Market description: description
– Describe the consumer competitive set in consumer language

Audience • Target Audience:
– Not just statistics – Picture in mind’s eye – Can be > one – Cab be sub-set

insight • Key Consumer insight:
– Critical – Business building! – Creative ‘hook’ – Don’t invent them!

• Single-Minded Proposition “It’s the most distinctive and singleminded proposition that we want consumers to believe our brand delivers better than any other.”

• Support: Support
– Should support SMP – Not mandatory – Don’t use to add secondary propositions!

• Brand Personality: Personality
– Useful, actionable words – Not obvious idiotic ones

• Ideal Consumer Response: Response
– Whatever would make you and your Agency colleagues embrace each other in delight as the perfect response to seeing the advertising

• Advertising Idea: Idea
– See earlier in this document under Advertising Idea vs. Execution

• Mandatory Executional Requirements: Requirements
– As few as possible – Beware closing creative doors

• Budget: Budget
– Production Budget
• Specify spending ceiling

– Media Budget
• Gives creative team a context for production budget

– Suggested Time Lengths / Space size
• Suggest, but don’t be dogmatic. Agency may have better idea

• Competitive Context • Planned Pre-Testing

Improving briefing
• • • • • • Take briefs as seriously as creative work Take time Involve others Single-Minded Proposition Work Hard at Consumer Insight Make it interesting

Sample Briefs

PERSIL

VECTRA

Whole Brain Model

LEFT BRAIN
“An Ad That Convinced Me Rationally”

RIGHT BRAIN RIGHT BRAIN

“An Ad That Didn’t Appeal To Me/Touch Me”

“An Ad That Appealed To Me/ Touched Me”

“An Ad That Didn’t Convince Me Rationally”
Roger Clayton “Whole Brain” Model

LEFT BRAIN
“An Ad That Convinced Me Rationally”

RIGHT BRAIN RIGHT BRAIN

“An Ad That Didn’t Appeal To Me/Touch Me”

“An Ad That Appealed To Me/ Touched Me”

“An Ad That Didn’t Convince Me Rationally”
Roger Clayton “Whole Brain” Model

Receiving & Evaluating Advertising

Judging advertising well is hard
• • • • Subjective Disadvantage vs. Agency Time Pressure Relationship

1. Preparation
• What are we looking for?
– Creative Brief

• What context must it work in?
– Historical – Current – Competitive

2. Environment
• • • • People Venue Empathy Attitude

3. Time
• Sufficient • Nerve Curve

Gsk form ad5
• GSK uses Form AD5 ‘Creative Evaluation Guidelines’ • AD5 reviewed and revised • 2 stages before ‘evaluation’ • Evaluation focus shifted and simplified

4. The Creative Presentation Meeting

1. Listen

2. Clarify

3. Advertising Idea Evaluation

4. Executional Evaluation

5. Considered Response

Creative Evaluation Guidelines
ADVERTISING IDEA • What is the advertising idea that the advertising aims to communicate? • Is the idea involving for the target audience? • Is it distinctive? • Is it on Brief? • Is it right for the Brand? • Is it an endearing Creative Thought?

Creative Evaluation Guidelines
EXECUTION • Is the advertising idea clear in this execution? • Is this execution on Brief? • Will it appeal to the Target Audience? • Will it stick in their minds / stand out? • Is it right for the Brand? • Is it sufficiently well branded?

Creative Evaluation Guidelines
OVERALL IMPRESSION • Like/Dislike • Persuasion • Impact

The creative presentation meeting: other considerations
• • • • • • • Acknowledgement Gut Reaction Chairperson helps Explore all opinions Speak when ready, not in order! Silence is fine Huddling

Turning down creative work
• • • • • Be sure Face to face Acknowledge effort/intent Exact diagnosis Re-motivate

Together

Value the relationship
• • • • • • Work at it ‘Do unto others……’ Tonality Play together Be honest Joint evaluations

Value the creative work
• • • • • Enough time Brief well Presentations at agency Respond well Share responsibility

CH CHOICE OI CE CE HOICE I HO C C C CHOICE HO I CE OVERCHOICE E CHOICE IC O H CH C OICE IC E HO C

“Ironically, the people of the future may suffer not from an absence of choice, but from a paralysing surfeit of it. They may turn out to be the victims of that peculiar super-industrial dilemma: overchoice.” Alvin Toffler

CH CHOICE OI CE CE HOICE I HO C C C CHOICE HO I CE POSITIONIN E CHOICE IC G HO H C C OI IC E CE HO C

CH CHOICE OI CE CE HOICE I HO C C C CHOICE HO I CE E CHOICE IC O H CH C OICE IC E HO C

Choice Proliferation Choice Proliferation
PRODUCT • Crest Toothpaste • Orange Juice • Cream Cheese • Coke • Lettuce
VARIETIES 19701999 15 20 3 6 4 45 70 30 25 9

CHOICE

+ INNOVATION

Brings customers Brings customers unprecedented unprecedented opportunities opportunities

AND AND

unprecedented unprecedented anxieties anxieties

Seven Common Fears Seven Common Fears
(John Collard, Psychologist, (John Collard, Psychologist, Institute of Human Relations --Yale University) Institute of Human Relations Yale University)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Fear of failure Fear of sex Fear of self-defense Fear of trusting others Fear of thinking Fear of speaking Fear of being alone

The next generation of The next generation of positioning successes positioning successes will belong to those will belong to those brands that relieve brands that relieve customer stress. customer stress.

Become the Become the customer’s partner in customer’s partner in stress relief. stress relief.

SIMPLICITY.

The streamlining wake-up The streamlining wake-up call call
• IBM: • IBM:
1994-7 slashed models from 3400 to 150, 1994-7 slashed models from 3400 to 150, options from 750 to 350, inventory parts from 56k to options from 750 to 350, inventory parts from 56k to 15k. Outgrew industry for the first time in a decade. 15k. Outgrew industry for the first time in a decade. • P&G: 1995 cut number of hair care product choices by • P&G: 1995 cut number of hair care product choices by half. Market share has steadily grown. half. Market share has steadily grown.

Burger King, Sunoco, Nabisco, GM, Unilever... Burger King, Sunoco, Nabisco, GM, Unilever...

De-cluttering strategies De-cluttering strategies
• Products/services that reduce no. of • Products/services that reduce no. of products, brands or decisions (Conditioning products, brands or decisions (Conditioning shampoo, PDA, ‘Single-window’) shampoo, PDA, ‘Single-window’) • Advertising positioning (“Honda. We make it • Advertising positioning (“Honda. We make it simple”, “Nokia - human technology”) simple”, “Nokia - human technology”) • Branding (CareFree sugarless gum, • Branding (CareFree sugarless gum, Onebox.com, reduce sub-brands) Onebox.com, reduce sub-brands) • Simplify logo designs (Nike swish) • Simplify logo designs (Nike swish)

Simplicity and the Internet Simplicity and the Internet
• The need for simplicity is most apparent where • The need for simplicity is most apparent where complex technologies need to be harnessed and complex technologies need to be harnessed and made invisible in order to provide a stress-free made invisible in order to provide a stress-free customer experience. customer experience. • Sustained growth of the Internet is powered by • Sustained growth of the Internet is powered by advent of visible simplicity sitting on top of invisible advent of visible simplicity sitting on top of invisible complexity. complexity.
– One click ordering – One click ordering – Imode – Imode

4R’s of Simplicity 4R’s of Simplicity Marketing Marketing 1. Replace: Position yourself as a replacement for multiple or
2. Repackage: Bundle together products or services 2. Repackage: Bundle together products or services previously only available from multiple sources (integration). previously only available from multiple sources (integration). 3. Reposition: Directly position yourself on the promise of 3. Reposition: Directly position yourself on the promise of simplicity. simplicity. 4. Replenish: Continuously provide zero-defect service to 4. Replenish: Continuously provide zero-defect service to existing customers at acceptable price points so they never existing customers at acceptable price points so they never have to make a purchase decision ever again. have to make a purchase decision ever again.

1. Replace: Position yourself as a replacement for multiple or more complicated product or process. more complicated product or process.

R
REPLACE REPACKAGE REPOSITION REPLENISH

Strategy Components Strategy Components
Substitution Consolidation

Aggregation

Integration

Brand Vertical Discontinuous Streamlining Extension Repositioning Continuous Zero Defects Competitive Supply Pricing

“What use could this company make of an electrical toy?”
Western Union president, William Orton, rejecting Bell’s offer to sell his struggling telephone company for $100,000.

Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell
“The telephone may be briefly described as an electrical contrivance for reproducing in distant places the tones and articulations of a speaker’s voice so that conversation can be carried on by word of mouth between two persons in different rooms, in different streets or in different towns.”

AT&T AT&T “Reach out and “Reach out and touch someone” touch someone”

Complexity is not to be admired. It’s to be avoided.

20,000

114,000

600,000

• Pulchritude possesses profundity of a merely cutaneous nature. (Beauty is only skin deep.)

• It is not efficacious to indoctrinate a superannuated canine with innovative maneuvers. (You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.)

• Visible vapours that issue from carbonaceous materials are a harbinger of imminent conflagration. (Where there’s smoke, there’s fire.)

• A revolving mass of lithic conglomerates does not accumulate a congery of small green bryophitic plants. (A rolling stone gathers no moss.)

“Memos from Hell” “Memos from Hell”
(circulating at Fortune 500 companies) (circulating at Fortune 500 companies)

• Top leadership helicoptered this vision. (The bosses are looking beyond next week.)

“Memos from Hell”
(circulating at Fortune 500 companies)

• Adding value is the keystone to exponentially accelerating profit curves. (Lets grow sales and profits by offering more of what customers want.)

“Memos from Hell”
(circulating at Fortune 500 companies)

• We need to dimensionalise this management initiative (Lets all make a plan.)

“Memos from Hell”
(circulating at Fortune 500 companies)

• We utilised a concert of crossfunctional expertise. (People from different departments talked to each other.)

“Memos from Hell”
(circulating at Fortune 500 companies)

• Don’t impact employee incentivisation programs. (Don’t screw around with people’s pay.)

“Memos from Hell”
(circulating at Fortune 500 companies)

• Your job, for the time being, has been designated as “retained.” (You’re not fired yet.)

Big ideas almost always come in small words

Volvo’s Mission Volvo’s Mission Statement? Statement?
“Volvo is in the business “Volvo is in the business to make the safest vehicles to make the safest vehicles in the world.” in the world.”

Volvo’s Mission Statement! Volvo’s Mission Statement!

130 Words. 130 Words. ‘‘Safety’ is the 126th word. Safety’ is the 126th word.

The Mission Statement The Mission Statement Book Book
• Service (230 times) • Customers (211) • Quality (194) • Value (183) • Employees (157)

(Contains 301 corporate mission (Contains 301 corporate mission statements) statements)

-- Jeffrey Abrahams Jeffrey Abrahams • Growth (118)
• Environment (117) • Profit (114) • Leader (104) • Best (102)

Forget “what you want to be.” Focus on “what you can be.”

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