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Animal Cloning



Clone is a group of genetically identical cells

Clone is also an organism which is genetically an
exact replica of another organism.

Cloning is to duplicate a cell or an organism,

usually asexually, which is genetically an exact
replica of the other cell or organism.

History of cloning
1962 - John Gurdon claims to have cloned frogs from adult cells.
1963 - J.B.S. Haldane coins the term 'clone.'
1966 - Establishment of the complete genetic code.
1967 - Enzyme DNA ligase isolated.
1969 - Shapiero and Beckwith isolate the first gene.
1970 - First restriction enzyme isolated.
1972 - Paul Berg creates the first recombinant DNA molecules.
1973 - Cohen and Boyer create first recombinant DNA organisms.

1977 - Karl Illmensee claims to have created mice with only one parent.
1979 - Karl Illmensee makes claim to have cloned three mice.
1983 - Kary B. Mullis develops the polymerase chain reaction technique
for rapid DNA synthesis.
1983 - Solter and McGrath fuse a mouse embryo cell with an egg without a
nucleus, but fail to clone using their technique.
1984 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells

1985 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells. Steen Willadsen joins
Grenad Genetics to commercially clone cattle.
1986 - Steen Willadsen clones cattle from differentiated cells.

1986 - First, Prather, and Eyestone clone a cow from embryo cells.
1990 - Human Genome Project begins
1996 - Dolly, the first animal cloned from adult cells, born.

1997 - President Bill Clinton proposes a five year moratorium on cloning.

1997 - Richard Seed announces his plans to clone a human.
1997 - Wilmut and Campbell create Polly, a cloned sheep with an inserted human
1998 - Teruhiko Wakayama creates three generations of genetically identical cloned

Why we want to do cloning

Researchers hope that these techniques can be used in researching

and treating human diseases and genetically altering animals for
the production of human transplant organs.

Steps in Cloning

Step 1: Take any cell from your body, from the skin, for example.

Step 2: Take an egg cell (ovum), from the ovary of any woman.
Step 3: Take the nucleus out of the egg cell.
Step 4: Put together the cell of your skin and the egg
without nucleus. It will start to multiply forming a microspic
ball of many identical cells.
Step 5: In about 6 days place it in the uterus of the woman.
Step 6: In 9 months a baby will be born just like you,
an identical twin of you without any genetic
characteristics of the woman who gave the ovule and
provided the uterus, and gave birth to your twin.

What is Basic principle of cloning

Purpose full cloning

Pros and Cons of Cloning

Produce animals with desirable traits.
Increase the efficiency of the livestock production.
Offset losses of among endangered species populations.
Enable better research for finding cures to many diseases.
Provide children for parents who would like a child but can't
have one for various reasons.
Provide parents with an opportunity to clone a child who has
Decline in genetic diversity.
Taking nature into our own hands.
Religious and moral reasons.
Physical problems, such as birth defects.
Possibility of mental and emotional problems of the clone.

Applications of Animal Cloning

Animals as drug producers: Gene farming
Animal models: Models for human diseases
Breeding endogenic body tissue: Transplantation
Xenotransplantation: Animal organs Human
Livestock breeding and agriculture

Transgenic clones