•DATA • •







Presented by Rohit & Rakesh

METHOD OF PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION There fresh and fi data are those data which are collectedare several methods of Primary data character. and thus happen to be original in collection, they are •Interview method • Through questionnarires • Through schedules •other method •Observation method The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one

Interview method

Advantage •There is low cost even when large and Disadvantage geographical area is widely spread •The lower rate of return of duly filled in concerned questionnaires the bias of the •It is free from •interviewer It can be used only when respondent are educated and co-operating •Respondent have adequate time to •give control over the questionnaire may The well thought out answer lost once it sent who are not easily •Respondents, •approachableis likely slowest of all the This method can also reached methods conveniently

Collection of data through questionnaires

Collection of data

Advantage •It can be adopted in those cases where informants are illiterate. Disadvantage •Amongst veryvarious methods of collecting There is the little non- response as the enumerators go personallyis costly as primary data, this method to obtain the information. enumerators are generally paid persons. •The success of the methods depends The information received is more reliable as the accuracy of statements can to the largely upon the training imparted be checked by enumerators. supplementary questions whereverinterviewing requires experience • Skilled necessary. and training, but there is a tendency for statistics to neglect this extremely important part of the data collecting process.

tage vantage of this method is that subjective bias is eliminated i bservation is done accurately ormation under this method relates to what is currently happ ethod is independent of respondent Disadvantages •It is expensive method •Information provided by this method is very limited •Sometime unforeseen factors may interface with the observation task

Observation method

•structured or unstructured •Disguised or undisguised

•Natural or contrived



•nonparticipant or participant

Types of observation method

Warrantee card

Distributor audit

Electronic media

Consumer panel

Use of mechanical devi

her methods of data collect


• Official publication of central government. • Publication of Semi-Government Organization. • A secondaryof Research publication Publication source is a Institutions. data which has been reporting • gathered byof Business and Publication other authorities and for Financial other are responsible which Institutions • Newspaper and Periodicals • Report of Various Committees in Commissions appointed by the government. • Publication Of International Bodies  Unpublished Statistics

Sources Of Secondary Secondary Data

Internal Data Save time and money if on target Aids in determining direction for External Data primary data collection Less effort

Types Of Of Secondary AdvantagesSecondary data

May not be on target with the research problem Quality and Accuracy of data may pose a problem

Disadvantages of secondary Data


Disadvantages of Depth Interviews technique that involves oral questioning •Skilled interviewers capable of conducting of respondents, either individually or as a Advantages of Depth expensive and difficult depth interviews are Interviews group. •Can uncover deeper insights about to find. underlying motives than focus groups. •The quality and completeness of the •Can attribute the responses directly to the resultsInterviewing is a on the interviewer's depend heavily technique that is respondent, unlike focusan understanding skills. primarily used to gain groups. •Result in a free exchange of information •The data obtainedreasons and to analyze of the underlying are difficult and there is no social pressure to conform. and interpret.for people’s attitudes, motivations •As a length ofor behavior. possible to get •The result of probing, it is combined with preferences the interview at real issues when the topic is complex. high costs limits the number of depth interviews.

Interview Depth Interviews

In this method opinions are solicited from a number of other managers and staff Disadvantages Advantages can take a long time. •The process personnel. The decision makers consist of a •This method10 experts meaningful because •Responses may be less who to be making group of 5 to can be used willdevelop long-range forecastsaccountable demand product personnel the actual forecast. ofThe staff due to respondents are not and sales projections for new by preparing, products. assist decision makers anonymity. •A panel of collecting may possible. as a •High accuracy may not be summarizing distributing, experts and be used participants (respondents). survey result in •Poorly designed questionnaire will results. series of questionnaires and ambiguous or false conclusions.

Delphi Method

The Resume Practice Research Company Background Poise and Confidence Dress and Appearance Self Talk Behavioral Questions Buzz Words Important Don'ts Questions

Conditions for a successful interview


Field work is the fourth step in the marketing research process .It follows problem definition, development of the approach and formulation of the research design General fieldwork/data-collection process is the process which involves the selection, training, and supervision of the field worker, the validation of fieldwork, and the evaluation of field workers.


The nature of the fieldwork varies with the mode of data collection and the relative emphasis on the different steps will be different for telephone, mail, personal and electronic interviews. The quality of field work is high because the fieldwork /data collection process is streamlined and well controlled.


•Healthy – Fieldworkers can be strenuous and they must the stamina required to do the job. •Outgoing- they must be able to establish good rapport with the respondents. •Communicative- effective speaking and listening skills are greatly required. •Pleasant appearance- they should be neatly dressed. •Educated- they must have good reading and writing skills.

General qualifications fieldworkers need are

It is a motivational technique used when asking survey questions to induce the respondents to enlarge on , clarify , or explain their answers and to help the respondents to focus on the specific content of the interview.


•How to make initial contact with the respondents and secure the interview. •How to ask the survey •How to probe •How to record responses •How to terminate the interview.


•Complete the number of interviews according to The interviewer observes the following the sampling plan assigned to you. basic principles •Follow the directions provided- lack of uniformity •Have integrity and be honest- this is incornerstone of can professional inquiry Hence the procedure all create wrong analysis. follow the directions carefully. •Have patience and tact-this is very •Complete the questionnaire meticulously- Follow important while interviewing exactly all the rules and regulations of the •Pay attention to accuracy and detailquestionnaire pattern. never assume sample execution and assigned •Compare your you know what a respondent is thinking or jump to any of questionnaires you quota with the total number conclusion. •Keep the inquiry and respondent’s have completed- Do not consider your assignments responses confidentialdone until you finished this.Do not discuss the •Clear up with questions.never violate the agencystudies any any one with the research call the agency to get the matter clarified if any. privacy rule.



•Direct observation •By Evaluating task performance •Participative observation/evaluation •Quantitative supervision methods •Qualitative supervision methods.

Supervision of

The perception of the observer OBSERVATION is a psychological involves •It is an in-depth technique that study of an systematically selecting, watching and event, situation or of behaviour. recording hidden in and characteristics of •It’s more behaviour nature living beings, period is generally •Observation objects or phenomena. of short duration (frequency). •Observation varies on the base of purpose •It’s very complex in the process of analysis.



Surveys emphasize verbal responses, while observation studies emphasize and allow for the systematic recording of nonverbal behaviour. Behavioural scientists have recognized that nonverbal behaviour can be a communication process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals.


THANK YOU for all who have supported us for helping us & guiding us for preparation of this presentation…we thank mam for moral support….

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful