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A PRESENTATION ON

ENGINE COMPONENTS AND ENGINE


MANAGEMENTS SYSTEM
IN AUTOMOBILES
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
MR. AJAY SHARMA

PRESENTED BY:GIRISH KUMAR


ENROLL. NO.-2326213034
M. TECH.-AUTOMOBILE ENGG.
3RD SEM.

OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this presentation is to get

thorough knowledge about engine components and


Engine Management System.

ABSTRACT
There are different servicing done at the various time after the
vehicle purchased from any competent. Some services are
given free by the company to the customers and rest of them
are paid one. During servicing mainly the engine oil, coolant,
tyres alignments, engine parts working, fuel gauge checking,
various sensors working and ECU are checked. I had checked
various position of the sensors, engine servicing and working
of ECU of the vehicle.

ENGINE
Engine is the main part of an automobile which provides
the power to an automobile whenever required. It is also
called the heart of an automobile. It takes the fuel and air
as an input and provides power as an output. Hence
engine is the most necessary part of an automobile.
There are various advancement done after 90s to
improve the fuel efficiency, decreases exhaust and to
provide necessary power output.

ENGINE OF AN AUTOMOBILE

ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (ECU)


It is an embedded system that controls one or more of the
electrical system or subsystems and control series of actuators on
an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine
performance in an automobile. It reads values from
sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using
multidimensional performance maps (called lookup tables) and
adjusts the engine actuators accordingly. It is also called the brain
of an automobile. It controls every system to provide optimum
engine performance.

ECU OF MARUTI CAR

TYPES OF ECU
1. Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
2. Transmission Control Module (TCM)
3. Brake Control Module (BCM)
4. Central Control Module (CCM)
5. Central Timing Module (CTM)
6. General Electronic Module (GEM)

7. Body Control Module (BCM)


8. Suspension Control Module (SCM)

WORKING OF ECU
CONTROL OF AIR/FUEL RATIO
An engine with fuel injection, an engine control unit (ECU)
will determine the quantity of fuel to inject based on a
number of parameters. If the throttle position sensor is
showing the throttle pedal is pressed further down,
the mass flow sensor will measure the amount of additional
air being sucked into the engine and the ECU will inject
fixed quantity of fuel into the engine ( most of the engine
fuel inlet quantity is fixed). If the engine coolant
temperature sensor is showing the engine has not warmed
up yet, more fuel will be injected.

CONTROL OF IGNITION TIMING


A spark ignition engine requires a spark to initiate
combustion in the combustion chamber. An ECU can adjust
the exact timing of the spark to provide better power and
economy. If the ECU detects knock, a condition which is
potentially destructive to engines and determines it to be
the result of the ignition timing occurring too early in the
compression stroke, it will delay (retard) the timing of the
spark to prevent this.

CONTROL OF IDLE SPEED


Most engine systems have idle speed control built into the
ECU. The engine RPM is monitored by the crankshaft
position sensor which plays a primary role in the engine
timing functions for fuel injection, spark events, and valve
timing. Idle speed is controlled by a programmable throttle
stop or an idle air bypass control stepper motor. Effective
idle speed control must anticipate the engine load at idle. A
full authority throttle control system may be used to control
idle speed, provide cruise control functions and top speed
limitation.

CONTROL OF VARIABLE VALVE TIMING


Some engines have Variable Valve Timing. In such an
engine, the ECU controls the time in the engine cycle at
which the valves open. The valves are usually opened
sooner at higher speed than at lower speed. This can
optimize the flow of air into the cylinder, increasing
power and the economy.

ELECTRONIC VALVE CONTROL


Engines have been made and tested that have no camshaft, but
have full electronic control of the intake and exhaust valve
opening, valve closing and area of the valve opening. Such
engines can be started and run without a starter motor for certain
multi-cylinder engines equipped with precision timed electronic
ignition and fuel injection. The elimination of cams, lifters,
rockers and timing set not only reduces weight and bulk, but also
friction. A significant portion of the power that an engine actually
produces is used up just driving the valve train, compressing all
those valve springs thousands of times a minute.

IGNITION TIMING
It defines at what point in the engine cycle the spark
plug should fire for each cylinder. Modern systems allow
for individual trim on each cylinder for per-cylinder
optimization of the ignition timing.

REVOLUTION LIMIT
It defines the maximum RPM that the engine is allowed to
reach. After this fuel or ignition is cut-off. Some vehicles
have a "soft" cut-off before the "hard" cut-off. This "soft
cut" generally functions by retarding ignition timing to
reduce power output and thereby slowdown the
acceleration rate just before the "hard cut" is hit.

WATER TEMPERATURE CORRECTION


It allows for additional fuel to be added when the engine is
cold, such as in a winter cold-start or when the engine is
dangerously hot, to allow for additional cylinder cooling.

TRANSIENT FUELING
It tells the ECU to add a specific amount of fuel when throttle is
applied. This referred to as "acceleration enrichment".

LOW FUEL PRESSURE MODIFIER


It tells the ECU to increase the injector fire time to compensate
for an increase or loss of fuel pressure.

CLOSED LOOP LAMBDA


It lets the ECU monitor a permanently installed lambda probe and
modify the fueling to achieve the targeted air/fuel ratio desired.
This is often the stoichiometric (ideal) air fuel ratio, which on
traditional petrol (gasoline) powered vehicles this air/fuel ratio is
14.7:1. This can also be a much richer ratio for when the engine
is under high load or possibly a leaner ratio for when the engine
is operating under low load cruise conditions for maximum fuel
efficiency.

I-GPI TECHNOLOGY
The newly developed i-GPI or intelligent-Gas Port
Injection is claimed to be safe, reliable, clean, responsive
and environment friendly. The i-GPI or Intelligent Gas Port
Injection technology delivers more power compared to any
aftermarket retro-fitted CNG vehicles and offer an
experience similar to that of a petrol-fuelled engine, while
achieving high fuel efficiency at the same time. The factory
fitted CNG vehicles passed through all the quality checks,
processes and systems similar to a regular car
manufactured at Maruti Suzuki plants.

I-GPI TECHNOLOGY

BENEFITS OF MARUTI
FACTORY FITTED CNG
VEHICLE

Performance and Drivability at par with gasoline powered


engine
Safety reinforced: High Quality Components,Integrated wiring
harness, CNG system leak-proofing, toughened suspension

High fuel efficiency

Lower running costs by 60 percent

Extensive performance testing

Peace of Mind: Full warranty coverage, Service support across


the country
No compromise on engine life

VARIOUS SENSORS

THROTTLE POSITION
SENSOR
This sensor is usually located on the butterfly valve
throttle spindle so that it can directly monitor the position
of the throttle. . More advanced forms of the sensor are also
used, for example an extra closed throttle position
sensor (CTPS) may be employed to indicate that the
throttle is completely closed.

THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR

AIRFUEL RATIO METER


An airfuel ratio meter monitors the airfuel ratio of
an internal combustion engine. It is also called as airfuel
ratio gauge, airfuel meter, or airfuel gauge. It reads the
voltage output of an oxygen sensor, sometimes also called
lambda sensor, whether it be from a narrow band or wide
band oxygen sensor.

AIRFUEL RATIO METER

BENEFITS OF AIRFUEL RATIO METERING


It determines the condition of the oxygen sensor
Reducing emissions
Fuel economy
Engine performance

BLIND SPOT MONITOR


A blind spot monitor is a vehicle-based sensor device that
detects other vehicles located to the drivers side and rear.
Warnings can be visual, audible, vibrating . However, blind spot
monitors are an option that may include more than monitoring the
sides of the vehicle. It can include "Cross Traffic Alert," "which
alerts drivers backing out of a parking space when traffic is
approaching from the sides.

CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR


A crankshaft position sensor is an electronic
device used in an internal combustion engine to
monitor the position or rotational speed of
the crankshaft. This information is used
by
engine
management
systems
to
control ignition system timing and other engine
parameters. Before electronic crank sensors were
available, the distributor would have to be
manually adjusted to a timing mark on the
engine.

CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR

ENGINE COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR


The coolant temperature sensor is used to measure the
temperature of the engine coolant of an internal
combustion engine. The readings from this sensor are then
fed back to the Engine control unit (ECU). This data from
the sensor is then used to adjust the fuel
injection and ignition timing. On some vehicles the sensor
may be used to switch on the electronic cooling fan. The
data may also be used to provide readings for a coolant
temperature gauge.

ENGINE COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TYPES OF COOLANT TEMPERATURE


SENSOR
There are two common types of coolant temperature
sensors
in
use
on
automotive
engines
Negative Temperature coefficient (NTC) and positive
temperature coefficient (PTC). In the case of Negative
temperature coefficient sensor the internal Electrical
resistance will decrease as it is exposed to more heat, while
the opposite is true in a Positive temperature coefficient
sensor. Most Automotive coolant temperature sensors are
NTC sensors.

MAP SENSOR
The Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor is one used
in internal combustion engine which are typically fuel
injected. The manifold absolute pressure sensor provides
instantaneous manifold pressure information to the
engine's electronic control unit. The data is used to
calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass
flow rate, which in turn determines the required fuel
metering for optimum combustion and influence the
advance or retard of ignition timing. A fuel-injected engine
may alternately use a mass air flow sensor (MAF sensor) to
detect the intake airflow.

VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Voltage Regulators are power converters that
provide voltage control capabilities. They accept
a voltage that varies over a given range and generate an
output voltage that does not vary. Too much or too little
voltage can damage the battery, as well as other electrical
components. To ensure the correct amount, a voltage
regulator determines when and how much voltage is
needed in the battery.

VOLTAGE REGULATOR

CURRENT REGULATOR
Even though the generator's voltage is controlled it is
possible for its current to run too high. This would overheat
the generator, so a current regulator is incorporated to
prevent armature failure. Similar in appearance to the
voltage regulator's iron core, the current regulator's core is
wound with a few turns of heavy wire and connected in
series with the generator's armature.

CURRENT REGULATOR

CUTOUT RELAY
Sometimes called the circuit breaker, this device is a
magnetic "make-and-break" switch. It connects the
generator to the battery circuit when the generator's voltage
builds up to the desired value. It disconnects the generator
when it slows down or stops. The relay has an iron core
that is magnetized to pull down a hinged armature. When
the armature is pulled down a set of contact points closes
and the circuit is completed. When the magnetic field is
broken (like when the generator slows down or stops) a
spring pulls the armature up, breaking the contact points.

CUTOUT RELAY

CONSTRUCTION
The regulator has two inputs and one output. The
inputs are the field current supply and the control
voltage input, and the output is the field current
to the rotor. The regulator uses the control
voltage input to control the amount of field
current input that is allow to pass through to the
rotor winding. If the battery voltage drops, the
regulator senses this, by means of the connection
to the battery, and allows more of the field
current input to reach the rotor, which increases
the magnetic field strength, which ultimately
increases the voltage output of the alternator.

CONSTRUCTION

HOW IT WORKS
Voltage regulators used are almost all solid state. Most are
mounted inside the alternator. This reduces the amount of
wiring on a vehicle and eliminates the need to create space
to mount the voltage regulator under the hood. Voltage
regulators help to maintain current output of the alternator
at a specified level. The operating voltage of a running
engine is usually around 14 volts.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


Regulators are inexpensive and relatively easy to find.
Replacement is always a good idea. They are
mechanical, voltage regulators are easy to troubleshoot.
If we study the function of each of the three parts and
how they interrelate, it becomes obvious which part is
malfunctioning, depending upon symptoms.

The disadvantage is that the point gaps and spring


pressures determine the voltage/current limits and they
are exceedingly hard to adjust. Sometimes it can be
done on the car using a voltmeter, but generally it is best
to replace the entire regulator assembly when a certain
part of it fails. Factory assembly of regulators required
relatively sophisticated measurement instruments.

CONCLUSIONS
This internship is totally involved the study of whole
components of cars, specially engine and ECU. It is
very important to get thorough knowledge of each part
of automobiles, their working, positions, timing and
control, how these components of engine and ECU
helps for transmission to occur and how various
sensors helps to the engine working, how these signal

sends to ECU and return to actuator, relay and


solenoids.

THANK YOU