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Resistive

&
Capacitive
Transducers

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Presented By:

Overviews

Transducers
Types of transducers (Active and Passive)
Resistive Transducers
Definition
Working Principle
Types
Advantages and disadvantages
Applications
Capacitive transducers
Definition
Working principle
Types
Advantages and disadvantages
Applications

Transducers
Transducer is an electronic device that converts a signal,
in the form of energy, into another form of energy. It
converts energy to a readable form e.g. thermometer that
converts heat energy into height of mercury column.
OR
Transducer covert physical quantity into electrical
signal. So without transducer, it would be very difficult
to measure the physical quantity e.g. light intensity,
speed, temperature, radiation, electric flux etc. The
quantities are first converted into electrical signal ,then
they are monitored by dedicated equipments.

EXAMPLES:
Microphones ,loudspeakers, thermometers, pressure
sensors, LEDs and even common bulb are considered as
transducers.

Active and Passive transducers:


ACTIVE transducers generates an electrical signal

directly in response to the physical parameter and does


not require an external power source for its operation.
(e.g. piezo electrical sensors and photo voltaic cells)

PASSIVE transducers needs external source of power

for their operation so they are not self generating type of


transducers.
(e.g. resistive , capacitive and inductive transducers)

Resistive Transducer
Resistive transducers are those in which the resistance
change due to the change in some physical
phenomenon . They can be used for measuring various
physical quantities like temperature, pressure,
displacement, force, vibrations etc.

Working Principle of
Resistive transducers:

The variable resistance transducer elements work


on the principle that the resistance of the
conductor is directly proportional to the length of
the conductor and inversely proportional to the
area of the conductor.
R = L/A
Where is constant of resistivity of the material
and is measured in ohm-m
Resistance can be changed if any of these
value p ,L or A is changed

Working Principle of Resistive


transducers:
The resistance of some materials also changes
with the change in their temperature.
For example:
Resistance of metal is increased by
increasing the temperature and resistance of semi
conductor decreased by increasing the
temperature. This principle is primarily used for
the measurement of temperature.

Types of Resistive Transducers:


Strain Gauge
Wire Strain Gauge
Foil Strain Gauge
Semiconductor Strain Gauges
Potentiometer
Thermistors
Resistance Thermometers

Strain Gauge:
The strain gauge is a passive, resistive transducer
which measures the mechanical elongation and
compression with the help of resistance change.
This change in resistance takes place due to
variation in length and cross sectional area of the
gauge wire, when an external force acts on it.

Working Principle of Strain Gauge:

Each metal has its specific resistance. An external


force increases/decreases the resistance by
elongating/contracting it. Suppose the original
resistance is R and a strain initiated change in
resistance is R. Then, the following relation is
concluded:

where, Ks is a gauge factor, this coefficient


expressing strain gauge sensitivity.

Types of Strain Gauge:


1. WIRE STRAIN GAUGE :

a) Unbonded form
b) Bonded form
2. FOIL STRAIN GAUGE
3. SEMICONDUCTOR STRAIN GAUGE

WIRE STRAIN GAUGE:

In this type of strain gauge the strain is sensed


with the help of wire.
UNBONDED STRAIN GAUGE:
1. Unbonded strain gauge consist of a wire
stretched between two points in an insulating
medium i.e. air.
2. The diameter of wire used is about 25um.
3. The wires are kept under tension so that there
is no free vibration.
4. Unbonded strain gauge are usually connected
in a bridge circuit.

Working principle of
Unbonded Strain Gauge:

When an external load is applied the resistance


of strain gauge changes, causing an unbalanced
of the bridge circuit resulting in an output
voltage. This voltage is proportional to strain.

USES OF UNBONDED STRAIN


GAUGE:
1. Unbonded strain gauge is used in places where
the gauge is to be detached and used again and
again.
2. Unbonded strain gauges are used in force,
pressure and acceleration measurement.
NOTE: This gauge has a very high accuracy. But it
occupies more space.

BONDED STRAIN GAUGE:

A metallic bonded strain gauge is shown in fig:

A fine wire element about 25um or less in


diameter is looped back and forth on a carrier
or mounting plate, which is usually cemented to
the member undergoing stress.
NOTE: They are reasonably inexpensive, small
in size, low mass, can measure static & dynamic
strain.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF
BONDED STRAIN GAUGE:
A tensile stress tends to elongate the wire and
thereby increase its length and decrease its
cross sectional area. The combined effect is an
increase in resistance, as seen from the
formulae:
R = L/A
L= length
A= cross sectional area
= specific resistance of material (ohm m)

Foil Strain Gauge:

In this type of strain gauge the strain is sensed


with the help of metal foil.
The metals and alloys used for the foil and
wire are nichrome, constantan (Ni+Cu),
isoelastic (Ni+Cr+Mo), nickel and platinum.

SEMICONDUCTOR STRAIN
GAUGE:

Semiconductor gauge are used in application


where a high gauge factor is desired. A high
gauge factor means relatively higher change
in resistance that can be measured with good
accuracy.
The resistance of the semiconductor gauge
change as strain is applied to it. The
semiconductor gauge depends for their
action upon the piezo-resistive effect i.e.
change in value of resistance due to change
in resistivity.

SEMICONDUCTOR STRAIN GAUGE:


Silicon and germanium are used as resistive material for
semiconductor gauges.

Semiconductor strain gauge

ADVANTAGES OF
SEMICONDUCTOR STRAIN
GAUGE:

1. They have a high gauge factor of about +130


this allow measurement of very small strain
about 0.01 micro strain.
2. Semiconductor strain gauges can be very
small in size, ranges in length from
0.7-7.0mm.
BUT
As they are very sensitive to temperature so
they are expensive.

POTENTIOMETER:
A potentiometer is an instrument for measuring
the potential (voltage) in a circuit.
Potentiometer is one of most commonly used
device for measurement of the displacement of
the body.
The potentiometer is of resistive type because it
works on the principle of change of resistance
of the wire with its length.
A potentiometric transducer converts the
measured
quantities
i.e.
displacements,
geometric dimensions, or angles of rotation into
changes in the electrical resistance.

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

The potentiometer is an electric circuit in which


the resistance can be changed manually by the
sliding contacts. Vs is applied voltage across the
two points of the wire A and B. C is the variable
contact point between A and B. The resistance of
the conductor AC changes as the length of the
wire AC changes.

POTENTIOMETER AS A
TRANSDUCER

To measure the displacement of the body, which is


moving, is connected to the sliding element of the
potentiometer.
As the body moves, the position of the slider
located on the potentiometer also changes so the
resistance between the fixed point and the slider
changes. Due to this the voltage Vo across these
points also changes. The change in voltage or the
resistance is proportional to the change in the
displacement of the body. Thus the voltage change
indicates the displacement of the body.

The potentiometer can be used for the


measurement of translational displacement:

The potentiometer can be used for the


measurement of rotational displacement:

ADVANTAGES OF
POTENTIOMETERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

They are inexpensive.


They are simple to operate.
Electrical efficiency is very high.
More precise.
No loss of power during measurement.
BUT
When using a linear potentiometer, a large force
is required to move sliding contact. Sliding
contacts can wear out and generate noise.

THERMISTOR
A thermistor is a temperature-sensing
element composed of semiconductor material
(typically a mix of metal oxides) that exhibits a
large change in resistance in response to a
small change in temperature .
Thermistor have a negative temperature
coefficient (NTC) i.e. resistance decreases as
temperature rises.
High sensitivity to temperature changes
makes the thermistor extremely useful for
precision temperature measurements.

Continued

The thermistor may be in the form of beads, discs


and rods.

BEAD THERMISTOR:

Smallest thermistors are made in the form of


beads. Some are as small as 0.15mm in diameter.
Its probes are made up of glass and are used for
measuring the temperature of liquid.

DISC THERMISTOR:
It is about 10mm in diameter, either self
supporting or mounted on small plate, mainly
used for temperature control.

ROD THERMISTOR:
A type of thermistor that has high
resistance.
Long time constant and moderate power
dissipation; it is extruded as a long vertical
rod 0.250-2.0 inches long.

ADVANTAGES OF
THERMISTORS:

1. It is small in size and low cost.


2. Fast response over narrow temperature
range.
3. Good sensitivity in the NTC region.
BUT
It is unsuitable for wide temperature range
and are only suitable for up to about 180C.
It has very low excitation curent to avoid self
heating.

Resistance Thermometer:
1. Resistance thermometers are also known as
resistance temperature devices (RTD).
2. The resistance of a conductor changes when its
temperature changes, this property is utilized
in resistance thermometers to measure
temperature.
3. Resistance thermometers are useful in
situations where a high degree of accuracy is
required.

Difference between Thermistor and


Resistance Thermometer:
THERMISTOR

1. Made up of semiconductors.
2. Have negative temp
coefficient.
3. Less temperature
range i.e. 180C
4. Faster response

RESISTANCE
THERMOMETER
Made up of metals.

Have positive temperature


Coefficient.
Greater temperature
range i.e. 660C
slow response as compare
to thermistor

APPLICATION OF RESISTIVE
TRANSDUCER

Strain gauges are used in CAT scan machine

Continued

A thermistor can be used to control temperature


inside a green house.

Continued

Strain gauges are used in Mammography


machines for measurement of force applied.

Continued

Behind the dimmer switch (vary brightness of


light)stands the potentiometer (resistive
transducer).

Continued

Thermistors are used for Engine Oil Temperature


Monitoring

Capacitive Transducer:
Capacitive transducer are those in which the
capacitance change due to the change in some
physical phenomenon into electrical signal.

Working Principal of
Capacitive Transducer
Capacitive Transducers measure the

displacement by measuring the change in


capacitance.
0 r A
Where capacitance is given by,
C
C = capacitance
d
A= area

12 F
d= distance between plates 0 8.85 10

K= o & r = dielectric constant

Working Principle of Capacitive


Transducer

Means change in capacitance occurs due to:


Change in . overlapped area of plates
Change in distance between the two plates
Change in dielectric medium.

Capacitive Transducer(For
Thickness Measurement)
Capacitive transducer can be used to measure
the thickness of the material.
Material whose thickness is to be measured is
placed in between the two metal plates forming
a parallel plate capacitor.
C = A/D

Dielectric Gauge(For Liquid Level


Measurement)
Capacitive transducers can be used in liquids
and free flowing solids for continuous level
measurement.

WORKING PRINCIPLE
The principle of capacitive level measurement is
based on change of capacitance. An insulated
electrode acts as one plate of capacitor and the
tank wall (or reference electrode in a nonmetallic vessel) acts as the other plate. The
capacitance depends on the fluid level. An empty
tank has a lower capacitance while a filled tank
has a higher capacitance.

Advantages Of Capacitive
Transducer

Construction is very simple.


Cost of the transducer is low.
Has very high sensitivity.
BUT
High impedance output.
High temperature sensitivity.
Need for complex electronics

APPLICATIONS OF CAPACITIVE
TRANSDUCERS:

Capacitive transducers are used in touch screen


mobiles.

Continued

Capacitive transducers are used in Smart beds to detect


postures that are potentially harmful to the spinal
column.

Continue

Capacitive transducers are used in water level detection.