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Seals

STATIC SEALS
COVER JOINTS
Theoretically gaskets are not necessary
If two mating surfaces are machined &
clamped together nothing would extrude
between the surfaces
but high cost of precision finishing
necessary for this perfection makes it
impractical to produce such surfaces hence
gasket can be used

COVER JOINTS
It can be used depends on the nature of the
fluid in the valve, Pressure and temperature
of the fluid
For Low Pressure Resilient joint can be
used

MATERIALS

Rubber
Rubber with Fiber insertion
Graphited sheet asbestos
Reinforced with steel mesh
Oil impregnated paper
Teflon (PTFE)

MATERIALS
COPPER
ALUMINIUM
CAST IRON

GASKET UNAFFECTED BY
Fluid being sealed
Must resist operating pressure and
temperature
Must be stable

GASKET THICKNESS

Low loads- thicker


High Loads-Thinner
Suitable range: 0.4 mm
Varied up to 3mm

VALVE PACKINGS
The majority of the valves in service
utilizing stuffing boxes to produce the stem
seal.
Effective stem sealing is achieved by using
correct type of packing and correct packing
material

SELECTING PACKING
MATERIAL

Material to be handled
Operating pressure
Operating Temperature
Minimum Temperature
Size of Packing
Material of valve and valve stem

Types of fluid
1. Fluids sensitive to changes in temperature and/or
pressure.

2. Fluids that require two mechanical seals.


3. Non lubricating liquids, gases and solids.
4. Slurries, classified as solids in liquid . The solids
may or may not be abrasive.
5. Liquids sensitive to agitation.
6. Liquids that react with each other to form a solid.
7. Lubricating liquids.

Gland Packing
To achieve zero leakage between a
moving member and a relatively
stationary part, seals are employed.
The most common, least expensive and
versatile in nature is the Gland Packing.
Gland Packing provides a dynamic seal for
a rod, shaft or stem via a housing or gland
which is packed with resilient or semiresilient material, thus providing a
localized contact area which offers a
physical barrier to leakage.

PROPERTIES THE GLAND PACKING


Good anti-friction properties
Good chemical resistance to fluid
contained
Should not get effected by the
temperature of application

Should be reasonably compressible and


have a good resilience
Should retain the self lubricants

Should not effect the shaft


Should not contaminate the fluid being
contained

To ensure long and trouble-free


sealing, check the following
periodically :
The clearance between shaft and neck-bush at
the bottom end of the stuffing box. The
maximum normal clearance is 0.25mm
Concentricity of shaft with stuffing box bore.
Straightness of shaft (run-out) -- not to exceed
0.05mm. Clock guage reading.
Condition of shaft surface in packing area -- no
excessive grooves, scores or pitting.

Pump bearings -- wear can induce shaft "whip"


which can damage gland packing

PACKING THE GLAND


Ensure that all the old packing is
removed and the stuffing box is clean
and free from foreign matter.
Always re-pack with new packing.
Choose packings recommended for the
fluid to be contained.
Select correct size of packing to fit the
stuffing box dimensions.

PACKING THE GLAND


Wrap packing on the shaft and cut into
rings of correct size.
Fit each packing individually by tamping
or with split sleeves.
Stagger joints in consecutive packing
rings.
Fit gland follower and check that the
shaft rotates freely.

Tighten gland nuts evenly with spanner


until the packing "drags" when turning
the shaft by hand.

PACKING MATERIAL
Graphite
PTFE
Greasy

Graphite
Inherent in graphite is an unusual
blend of properties physical and
chemical, that led to its acceptance
as an engineering material of
consequence.
A low friction characteristic, high
thermal conductivity and relative
chemical inertness enable this
packing to be used successfully in
steam, solvents, hydrocarbons,

PTFE
No longer is P.T.F.E. considered a
remarkable but expensive material
reserved for those occasions when
no sound alternative can be found.
Currently it is regarded as a
moderately-priced, standard
engineering material with a subtle
blend of properties so diverse as to
provide it with applications
throughout industry

Greasy
Flax packing is designed to seal
cross-sectional areas and is ideal to
solve the exact sealing
requirements of stern glands in the
marine industry.
This packing will also be of superior
service in heavy reciprocating
machinery, rotary applications
handling abusive media and heavy
duty static applications such as tank
seal lids.

TYPES OF PACKINGS

REGULAR BRAID
BRAID-OVER -BRAID
TWISTED PACKINGS
DIAGONALLY BRAIDED PACKING

REGULAR BRAID
It is also called Square, Plaited,or Flax
braided
Each strand passes over and under strands
running in the opposite direction
Cross section are square
These are suited for high pressure valve
stem packing and high speed rotary and
reciprocating service

BRAID-OVER -BRAID
It is also known as multiple or round braid
This packing is built up to required size by
braiding one or more covers around a
central core of braided,twisted or
homogeneous material
These are suitable for valve stems where out
of square cross sections

TWISTED PACKINGS
Yarns are twisted around each other to
obtain the desired size
One packing can be used for stuffing boxes
of various sizes
This is an especially good general utilty or
emergency type packing where packing
space is small

DIAGONALLY BRAIDED
PACKING
It is also known as Lattice braid Or
Chemlock
This packing is braided inside aswell as
outside
Each strand passes diagonally throuh the
body of the packing at an angle of 45
degrees

Fabric & Rubber packing


These are produced with natural neoprene
or SBR runner binders
Laminated construction duck and rubber
are press laminate into slab form,then
fabricated into either coil, spiral or ring
configuration.The material is laminated
either flat or diagonally

Fabric & Rubber packing


Rolled construction medium weight rubber
coated cotton duck with a hollow center.
The cross section is square.
This permits expansion and contraction of
packing without binding

Fabric & Rubber packing


Rolled construction from a medium rubber
coated duck rolled around a round rubber
core, producing a round cross section.
High resiliency permits flexing without
binding or seizing

Gland Packing
This is a packing made
by cotton fibre yarns
and treated with grease
and lubricant.
Spec: 6mm - 50mm

Gland packing
Braided by PTFE fibre
yarns and used in acids,
alkalis, gas, ammonia,
chemicals, etc.
The packing with PTFE
impregnated (YP006)are
also available.
Spec:6mm - 50mm

Corrosive liquids
Most corrosives will double their corrosion rate with a
18 degree Fahrenheit (10 C.) rise in temperature.
The temperature at the seal face is always hotter than
the temperature recorded in the stuffing box or seal
chamber.
Any contact between the rotating shaft and a
stationary component will cause high heat and will be
detected as localized corrosion.
If the equipment is provided with a cooling jacket and
it is not being utilized, the air inside can act as an
insulation increasing the heat in the stuffing box
considerably.

What is a Flange
A flange allows two pipes to be mechanically
connected together, or a pipe to be mechanically
connected to a valve, tee, choke or other piece of
equipment
The principle of a flange is to use a mechanical
force (exerted by the bolts) to pre-load the gasket
sufficiently so that when internal pressure (end cap
force) is applied, there is enough contact stress
between the flanges and gasket to maintain a seal.

The flange itself needs to be connected to the pipe. This is


usually achieved by welding, though threaded and other
weldless connections also exist.

Weldneck Flanges
These are the most common type of flange
used for high pressure applications. They are
recognized by their long tapered hub. The hub
provides an important reinforcement to the
flange itself and acts to reduce rotation of the
flange at bolt-up. The smooth transition
between the flange and the hub combined with
the strength of the butt weld joint, allows the
flange to be used in extreme conditions of
cyclic loading, bending and temperature
fluctuations.

Slip-On Flanges
Slip-On Flanges are ideal for lower
pressure applications. Their ease of
fitting and welding reduces fabrication
costs. Less time needs to be spent
ensuring the accuracy of the cut pipe
and they are somewhat easier to align.
They do not have as much strength as a
weldneck flange and are not available in
higher pressure ratings and diameters.

Blind Flanges
Blind Flanges are used to blank off the
ends of pipe, valves and pressure
vessel openings. They may often be
supplied with NPT fittings to allow
pressure test connections to be fitted.

Lap Joint Flanges Lap Joint Flanges must be used with their
associated stub end. The stub is welded to
the pipe and the Lap Joint then works as a
backing ring. The main advantage of this
type of flange is that the bolt holes can be
aligned with the matching flange after the
welds have been completed. A Lap Joint
Flange is not suitable for areas with high
external or dynamic loads. A Swivel Ring
Flange should be used for this type of
application.

Threaded Flanges
Threaded Flanges can be fitted to the
pipe without welding, though a seal
weld can sometimes be used. They are
suitable for small diameter high
pressure services. At larger diameters,
the difficulty in machining the thread on
to both the flange and pipe makes them
unviable. They are also not suitable for
areas having high external loads,
particularly torsion.

Socket Weld Flanges


The fabrication of these items is similar
to that of a Slip-On Flange. However,
their internal pocket allows for a smooth
bore and better fluid flow. They are ideal
for small diameter high pressure
applications.

Orifice Flanges
Orifice Flanges are used with orifice
meters to measure the flow rate of
liquids and gases in a pipeline. They are
similar to Weldneck, Slip-On and
Screwed Flanges, except that they are
modified to hold orifice plate carriers
and have radial taped holes for the
fitting of meter connections