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By:
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Assessing Leadership:
Who is a leader and
how do we know it?
Tom Mitchell, U. of Baltimore
Division of Applied Behavioral Sciences
tmitchell@ubalt.edu
http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch
410 837 5348

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Why we need to know


Selection
- hire new managers (first line to mid level)
Promotion
- succession planning and staffing
Development
- training and coaching
- diagnose problems
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Who are they?


Definitions of leadership:
Person who motivates others to perform well

Directing & coordinating group activities (Fiedler, 67)


Influencing others to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2004)
Building networked relationships to enhance cooperation (Day, 2001)

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Conceptual Distinctions
Born or bred?
Leader Emergence vs. Effectiveness
Leadership vs. Management /supervision

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Conceptual Distinctions
Leadership v. Management
Power sources (French & Raven, 59)
Position v. Personal power

Power source:

1. Reward:
2. Coercive
3. Legitimate
4. Referent
5. Expert

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Power influence:
give rewards
punish
demand
identifies with supervisor
knowledge & expertise

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Conceptual Distinctions
Leadership v. Management

Power source:

Power:

1. Reward:
2. Coercive
3. Legitimate

give rewards
punish
demand

4. Referent
5. Expert

identifies with supervisor


knowledge & expertise

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Leader vs. Manager

(Kotter, 90)

Establish Direction

Plan / Budget

vision - set strategy

resources time lines

Align People

Organize / Staffing

team building - Commitment

establish rules - hire

Motivate & Inspire

Control / Problem Solve

Inspire - empower

Incentives take action

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Theories: History (short)


Trait (20s 30s) -> dead end
E.g. height / weight / ambitious / gender
Behavioral (50s 60s: Ohio state, Fleishman & Harris, 62)
Consideration / initiating structure (LOQ)

Contingency (60s 70s: U. MI; Fiedler 67)


Situational leadership (Hersey & Blanchard, 77)
Path -> Goal (House & Mitchell, 74)
Trait (again!)
Charismatic
Transformational v. transactional (Bass, 06)

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Leadership: Factors and Competencies


(Jeanneret and Silzer, 1998)

Thinking skills
Analyzing information
Solving problems

Work management skills


Planning and organizing work
Being resourceful

Interpersonal and communication skills


Building networks
Relating to others

Leadership skills
Motivating and inspiring others
Coaching and developing others

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Factors and Competencies (cont)


Motivation skills
Adapting to change
Showing drive and taking action

Personal factors
Demonstrating integrity and trust
Modeling cultural values

Organizational skills
Focusing on customers
Committing to quality

Technical skills
Demonstrating functional expertise
Knowing the business

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Transformational Leadership
(Bass & Avolio, 2000)

Transformational Leadership
Transactional Leadership
Passive/Avoidant

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Personal traits:
Transformational Leadership
Transactional leaders
Social exchange

Transformational leaders
Stimulate and Inspire
Grow and develop
Empower followers

Passive/Avoidant
MBE / Lassiez Faire
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Transformational Leader
Characteristics
Idealized Influence
Role model / emulation

Inspirational Motivation
Vision / challenging

Intellectual Stimulation
Encourages creativity

Individualized Consideration
Coaching / mentoring

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Assessing Leadership
Who they are (now we know)
How do we know?
Why do we need to know?
Identifying and Assessing Leaders
(assessment strategies)

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Need to Identify Them


Recruitment
Selection
Succession planning (promotion)
Development

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Assessment: How to
Start with Job analysis:
Id SMEs
Conduct interviews

Review job description


Confirm leadership duties and KSAOs
(use factors and competencies)

Develop matrix (duties & competencies)


Document Job Analysis findings

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Assessment:
Issues in Assessing
Validity & reliability
Utility (effectiveness and cost)
Test portability (VG)

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Assessment: Issues
Validity strategies
Content validity
Criterion related validity
Construct validity
Face validity

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Assessment: Issues
Utility
Effectiveness
Logistics
Screening or ranking

Costs
Internal: Agency Personnel
External: Vendors = $$$

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Assessment: Issues
Validity Generalization
Constructs are valid
Job analysis: JA verification

Test portability
Why re-invent the wheel?

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Assessment:
Principal Traits
(Northouse, 04)

Intelligence
Self-confidence
Determination
Integrity
Sociability

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Assessment:
Methods
Personal History
Assessment center
Behavioral interview / Oral board
handout Candidate Leadership Ratings

Written tests / inventories

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Assessment:
Personal History

Supplemental application blank


References
Past performance reviews
Past accomplishments
Peer assessments (promo / dev)
360 / multi-rater

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Assessment: Assessment Center

Situational interview
In-basket technique
Job simulation
Leaderless Group Discussion
Leader emergence

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Assessment:
Written tests/ inventories

Cognitive ability
Integrity inventories
Personality inventories
Leadership ability tests
Biodata

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Assessment:
Cognitive Ability

Watson-Glazer Critical Thinking Appraisal


(Psychological Corporation: Harcourt Brace, Pub)

-> Measures:

Wonderlic Personnel Test

Inference
Recognition of Assumptions
Deduction
Interpretation (generalizing, conclusions)
Evaluation of Arguments

(Wonderlic Personnel Test, Inc., 1992. 1-800 323-3742 )

-> Measures

g general intelligence (potential for development)


Extensive norms

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Assessment: Integrity
Integrity tests
Overt
Personality
Hogan Personnel Selection Scale
(organizational delinquency)
http://www.hoganassessments.com/

Polygraph (?)

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Assessment:
Personality Inventories
NEO-PI (Five factor model)
(Costa & McRae, 92)

CPI (California Psychological Inventory)


CPP (Gough)

HPI (Hogan Personality Inventory)


(R. & J. Hogan)

IPIP (International Personality Item Pool)


(L.Goldberg)

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Five Factor Model:


Big Five Personality Dimensions (C A N O E) (Barrick & Mount, 91

Conscientiousness
persistence, doggedness, hardworking, dependable,
thorough, and responsible.

Agreeableness
being liked, courtesy, good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, soft
hearted.

Neuroticism
anxiety, depression, anger worry, and insecurity.

Open to Experience
imaginative, creative, broad-minded and intelligent.

Extroversion
sociability, gregariousness, talkativeness, and activity.
.

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NEO-PI
NEO-PI-R (Costa & McRae, 92)
NEO Personality Inventory: Revised
Long & short version
Management report
Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR)
http://www3.parinc.com/

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CPI:
Psychological Personality Inventory (3rd ed)
20 scales (approximate Big five)
2 special scales:
Managerial Potential (Mp)
Leadership Potential (Lp)
Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. (CPP)
http://www.cpp.com/

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Hogan Personality Inventory:


(HPI)
7 traits:

BIG Five

Adjustment
(Neuroticism)
Ambition / Sociability (Extraversion)
Likeability
(Agreeableness)
Prudence
(Conscientiousness)
Intellectance &
(Openness)
school success

Hogan Assessments, Inc. http://www.hoganassessments.com/

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IPIP
IPIP International Personality Item Pool
(L.Goldberg) http://ipip.ori.org/ipip/
Five Factors:
http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/5/j5j/IPIP/
Long version: 300 items (40-60 minutes)
Short version: 120 items (15-20 minutes)

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Leadership Ability:
Measures
Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ)
(Self report)

The Supervisory Behavior Description (SBD)


(used by subordinates to rate supervisor)
(E. Fleishman, Ohio State studies)

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)


(B. Bass, transformational Leadership)

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Leadership Ability: LOQ


Two dimensions (independent constructs)
Consideration
Concern for others

Initiating structure
Task oriented

Creative Organizational Design, Inc. (COD)


http://www.creativeorgdesign.com/testpages/loq.htm

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LOQ: Consideration
Relationships with subordinates characterized by:
Mutual trust
Respect for their ideas
Consideration of their feelings
Warmth between manager and subordinate
High score: Good rapport and two-way communications

Low score: More impersonal in relations with group members

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LOQ: Initiating Structure


Defines own and subordinates roles toward goal attainment
High score: Takes very active role in directing activities through

Planning
Communicating information
Scheduling
Criticizing
Trying new ideas

Low score: Relatively inactive in directing activites

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LOQ
used for:

Training
Assessment of culture
Selection
Coaching

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MLQ
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire

(Bass & Avolio)

Transformational Leadership
Transactional Leadership
Passive/Avoidant
Mindgarden, Inc. http://mindgarden.com/products/mlqr.htm

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MLQ: Used for


Selection
Succession Planning
Development (3600 Feedback)
Diagnosis / coaching
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Some Vendors
CCL Center for Creative Leadership
http://www.ccl.org/leadership/index.aspx
PDI Personnel Decisions International
http://www.personneldecisions.com

DDI Development Dimensions International


http://www.ddiworld.com/our_expertise/leadership.asp

Personnel Testing Council Metropolitan Washington


http://www.ptcmw.org/

(I/O consulting firms)

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Conclusion
Because
We know who they are &
Can identify them

We can
Improve Agency functioning & productivity
Through effectiveness

Reduce costs
Improve the bottom line

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Leadership
Comments?
Questions?

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Online Sources:

Center for Creative Leadership


http://www.ccl.org/leadership/index.aspx

Development Dimensions International (DDI)


http://www.ddiworld.com/our_expertise/leadership.asp

Personnel Decisions International


http://www.personneldecisions.com

Hogan Personnel Selection Scale


http://www.hoganassessments.com/

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire


http://mindgarden.com/products/mlqr.htm

Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ)


http://www.creativeorgdesign.com/testpages/loq.htm

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References

Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis.
Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26.
Bass, B. M. & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational Leadership. 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum, pub.
Bass, B. & Avolio, B. (2000). MLQ Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 2nd ed. Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden
Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO PI Personality Inventory: NEO PI and NEO Five Factor
Inventory (NEO FFI: Professional Manual: Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.)
Fiedler, F. (1967). A theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw Hill.
Fleishman, E. A. & Harris, E. F. (1962). Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and
turnover. Personnel Psychology, 15, 43-56.
French, J. R. P, & Raven, B. H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright. (Ed.),
Studies of social power ) pp. 150-157. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
Jeanneret, Richard, & Silzer, Rob. (1998). Individual Psychological Assessment Predicting behavior in
organizational settings. Jossey Bass pub. Chapter 12 Shaping organizational leadership.
Johnson, Jeff W., Questar Data Systems, Inc. Mineapolis, MN JEFFJ@PDI-CORP.COM
(Handout for ratings leadership characteristics)
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1977). Management of Organizational Behavior, 3rd 3d. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall
House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81-97.
Kotter, J. P. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management (pp. 3-8). New York: Free Press
Northouse, Peter G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed. Sage, pub.

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