Ethics & Traits
• 4 Volunteers
– 2 will give the instruction – 2 (blindfolded) will find the apple’s location
Your first expression?
Do we think that ‘red lady’ is important?
So… what types do we need as a leader?
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Our government approaches
• 1979 – Panduan Etika Perkhidmatan Cemerlang • 1982 – Kempen Bersih Cekap dan Manah • 1983 – Kempen Kepimpinan melalui tauladan • 1985 – Dasar Penerapan Nilai-Nilai Islam dalam perkhidmatan Awam • 1992 – Buku Tonggak Dua Belas
(Pusat Islam – Norhisham b Abdullah)
• • • • • • • • • • •
Cemerlang Berinisiatif Niat Bertanggungjawab pada masyarakat Amanah dalam kerja Komited dengan kerja Akhlak Jujur Bersyukur Pengurusan masa Muhasabah
Some says INCORRECT
• Special – born with certain character traits • Associated with proficient leadership • Naturally part – born ‘AS’ & “OR”
• Influenced by our personalities and the way we are born • Can be learn • (Mirroring) Will be created to be deceitful or good manner
Five Most Important Leadership Traits
• • • • • Honest Forward-Looking Competent Inspiring Intelligent
» From Kouzes and Posner’s research into leadership
(The Leadership Challenge)
Traits The Most to Must
20 – Patience 19 – Continuous Development 18 – Graft 17 – Fairness / Equity 16 – Modesty 15 – Appreciates Quality 14 – Sense of Humour 13 – Wide Outlook 12 – Adaptability and Flexibility 11- Human understanding
10 – Clarity 9 – Charisma 8 – Ability to delegate 7 – Calmness 6 – Ability to listen 5 – Confidence 4 – Consistency 3 – Approachability & Friendliness 2 – Passion and Motivation 1 - Trustworthiness
Achievement Motivation Theory
(David McClelland: 1940s)
Attempts to explain and predict behavior and performance based on a person’s need for achievement, power and affiliation
AMT The need for Achievement (n Ach)
– Unconscious concern for excellence in accomplishments through individual efforts – People with strong n Ach tend to have an internal locus of control, self-confidence, high energy traits – High n Ach is categorized as the Big Five dimension of conscientiousness
• Tent to – solving problem • Goal oriented – moderate, realistic, attainable goal • Seek challenge, excellence and individuality –take calculated, moderate risk, desire concrete feedback and work hard
– Think about to do better, accomplish something unusual and career progression – Perform well in nonroutine, challenging and competitive situation
AMT The need for Power (n Pow)
• • • • • • Control situation Influence or control over others Enjoying competition Willing to confront others Authority and status To be ambitious – successful leadership
AMT The need for Affiliation (n Aff)
• Concern about what others think of them • Getting their own way (influencing others) • Tend to AVOID management because like to be one of the group rather than its leader
LMP (Leader Motive Profile Theory)
• Attempts to explain and predict leadership success based on a person’s need for achievement, power and affiliation motive profile • LMP includes a high need for power, which is socialized; that is grater than the need for a affiliation and with a moderate need for achievement (usually somewhere between the power and affiliation score
• Identify each of the five behaviors by its need, write the appropriate letter in the blank before each item. The person may be behaving based on a strong need, or the behavior may be the apposite indicating a weak need. Also state how the behavior meets the need and predict the performanca
• A – achievement • B – power • C - affiliation
• ___ 1. The person is refusing to be the spokesperson for the group • ___ 2. The person is going to talk to a fellow employee with whom she had a disagreement earlier in the day to peacefully resolve the conflict • ___ 3. The person is working hard to meet a difficult deadline • ___ 4. An accounting major has volunteered to calculate the financial analysis for the group’s case and to make the presentation to the class • ___ 5. The fellow employee in situation 2 has made up his mind that he will not be the first one to make a move to resolve the conflict with the other person; but when other party comes to him, he will be receptive.
Western ethical Philosophy
• Ethics are virtues such as justice, charity and generosity benefit the person and the person's society. (Largely based on Aristotle's ideas.) • Ethics are central to morality - a human duty based on rational people's respect for other rational people. (Notably supported by Kant.) • Ethics are a guiding principle based on conduct which produces the greatest happiness or benefit to the greatest number of people. (Referred to as utilitarianism - this might be also be considered 'the greater good' concept.)
Theory ‘X’ and Theory ‘Y’
• Assumes that the average person
– Dislike work and attempts to avoid it – Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead – Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goal – Resists change – Is gullible and not particularly intelligent
• Makes the following general assumptions
– Work can be as natural as play and rest – People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them – People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as selffulfillment – Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility – Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population
The Pygmalion Effect
• This uniquely human phenomenon • Persistently held belief in another person such that the belief becomes as reality. • The person believed in, being believed, becomes the person whom they are perceived to be. • Main idea is – believing in potential simply creates potential and may occur all around us
» Mark Machaalani
• It is a BACKBONE behind planning and thinking
– Can be influents by behavior – Leader not only ask for good behave but they is the Role Model – Responsible to guide their organization by values and principles
• In other hand, when leadership ethics are applied, colleagues learn how to act in a way that promotes the well-being of others • Instead of working in a state of
– Fear – Anger – Jealousy
- Emotion of joy - Love - Generosity
• Knowing the right and wrong behavior can be critical in making or breaking organization
When an organization lacks of essential traits, Will soon crumble
Ethics in Three Dimension
• First – Idea of the autonomous actor
– Seem simple or straight forward
• Second – System
– Has to do something with the systems – Social arrangements – Define our range of voices
• Third – Assertion
– Opportunity to improve our situation – To do better
How do we feel?
Is it because of ‘great leader’ guidance? or commercial values?
• For this activity, you will be using the same set of statements twice. • The first time you answer them, focus on your own behavior and the frequency with which you use it for each question. • On the line before the question number, place the number 1–4 that represents how often you “did do” the behavior in the past, if you “do the behavior now,” or if you “would do” the behavior if you had the chance. • These numbers will allow you to determine your level of ethics. • You can be honest without fear of having to tell others your score in class. • Sharing ethics scores is not part of the activity Frequently Never 1 2 3 4
• The second time you use the same statements, focus on other people in an organization that you work/worked for. • Place an “O” on the line after the number if you observed someone doing this behavior. • Also place an “R” on the line if you reported (whistleblowing) this behavior within the organization or externally. • O—observed R—reported
1–4O–R College ____ 1. ___ Cheating on homework assignments. ____ 2. ___ Cheating on exams. ____ 3. ___ Passing in papers that were completed by someone else, as your own work.
___ 4. ___ Lying to others to get what you want or stay out of trouble. ____ 5. ___ Coming to work late, leaving work early, taking long breaks/lunches and getting paid for it. ____ 6. ___ Socializing, goofing off, or doing personal work rather than doing the work that should be done and getting paid for it. ____ 7. ___ Calling in sick to get a day off, when not sick.
____ 8. ___ Using the organization’s phone, computer, Internet, copier, mail, car, and so on for personal use. ____ 9. ___ Taking home company tools/equipment without permission for personal use and returning it. ____ 10. ___ Taking home organizational supplies or merchandise and keeping it. ____ 11. ___ Giving company supplies or merchandise to friends or allowing them to take them without saying anything. ____ 12. ___ Putting in for reimbursement for meals and travel or other expenses that weren’t actually eaten or taken. ____ 13. ___ Taking spouse/friends out to eat or on business trips and charging it to the organizational expense account.
____ 14. ___ Accepting gifts from customers/ suppliers in exchange for giving them business. ____ 15. ___ Cheating on your taxes. ____ 16. ___ Misleading customer to make a sale, such as short delivery dates. ____ 17. ___ Misleading competitors to get information to use to compete against them, such as saying/pretending to be a customer/supplier. ____ 18. ___ Planting things to look good. ____ 19. ___ Selling more of the product than the customer needs, to get the commission. ____ 20. ___ Spreading false rumors about coworkers or competitors to make yourself look better for advancement or to make more sales
____ 21. ___ Lying for your boss when asked/told to do so. ____ 22. ___ Deleting information that makes you look bad or changing information to look better than actual results—false information. ____ 23. ___ Being pressured, or pressuring others, to sign off on documents with false information. ____ 24. ___ Being pressured, or pressuring others, to sign off on documents you haven’t read knowing they may contain information or decisions that might be considered inappropriate.
• ____ 25. If you were to give this assessment to a person you work with whom you do not get along with very well, would s/he agree with your answers? Use a scale of yes 4—1 no on the line before the number 25 and skip O or R. • Other Unethical Behavior: • Add other unethical behaviors you observed. Identify if you reported the behavior using R. • 26. _____ • 27. _____ • 28. _____
• Scoring: To determine your ethics score, add the numbers 1–4. Your total will be between 25 and 100. • Place the number here ____ and on the continuum below that represents your score. • The higher your score the more ethical is your behavior, and vice versa for lower scores. 25–30—40—50—60—70—80—90—100 Unethical Ethical
Individuals and groups with a multitude of interests, expectations, and demands as to what business should provide to society
Origins of the Stakeholder Concept
What is a stake?
An interest or a share in an undertaking and can be categorized as:
Interest Right Legal Ownership
Three Values of the Stakeholder Model
• Descriptive • Instrumental • Normative
Key Questions In Stakeholder Management
• What economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities does our firm have to its stakeholders?
Philanthropic Responsibilities Be a good corporate citizen. Ethical Responsibilities Be ethical. Legal Responsibilities Obey the law. Economic Responsibilities Be profitable.
Stakeholder Power: Four Gates of Engagement
• • • • Awareness Knowledge Admiration Action