5 views

Uploaded by VinodKumarTummalur

FI

- Question Bank for SASP
- NEC Cable Tray Sizing Program - Copy
- Video Guide
- 14 Interpolation Decimation
- Nyemicdi4T D 12F683(51uS)
- 172
- Implementation of Gabor Filter on FPGA
- Kundur_DTS_Chap11a.pdf
- Program
- Ads 1210
- STFT
- LAB10 (1)
- Advanced Communication Lab-1(2016_17)
- Assg2
- interpolation.xls
- IJCTT-V3I3P120
- Q and Error Function Full Table
- PowerSpectra.pdf
- matlab 4
- clgi001 pr0--08may2015--16-05-55catoutput

You are on page 1of 32

j T

z

e

Sampling period T ,

INPUT

at the output

OUTPUT

Interpolation by m:

Let the OUTPUT be Y (z ) [i.e. Samples

exist at all instants nT]

m

then INPUT is X ( z ) [i.e. Samples exist

at instants mT]

Professor A G Constantinides

Let Digital Filter transfer function be H (.)

m

then Y ( z ) X ( z ).H (.)

Hence H (.) is of the form H (z ) i.e. its

impulse response exists at the instants mT.

Write

1

h(m).z

h(2m).z

2

2 m

h(m 1).z

( m 1)

h(2m 1).z

( 2 m 1)

( m 1)

( 2 m 1)

... h(3m 1) z

( 3m 1)

Professor A G Constantinides

m

1

m

2

m

H

(

z

)

H

(

z

)

z

H

(

z

)

z

H

(

z

) ...

Or

1

2

3

Where

H1 ( z m ) h(0) h(m).z m h(2m).z 2 m ...

m

m

2 m

H 2 ( z ) h(1) h(m 1).z h(2m 1).z

...

H 3 ( z ) h(2) h(m 2).z

m

h(2m 2).z

2m

...

So that

1

Y ( z ) H1 ( z ). X ( z ) z H 2 ( z ). X ( z )

m

z 2 H 3 ( z m ). X ( z m ) ...

3

Professor A G Constantinides

Hence the structure may be realised as

H1 ( z m )

INPUT

H2 (zm )

+

OUTPUT

H3 (zm )

Samples across here are

phased

by T secs. i.e. they do not

interact in the adder.

Can be replaced by a

commutator switch.

Professor A G Constantinides

Hence

H1 ( z m )

m

INPUT

H2 (z )

H3 (zm )

Commutator

OUTPUT

Professor A G Constantinides

Decimation by m:

Let Input be X (z ) (i.e. Samples exist at

all instants nT)

m

Y

(

z

) (i.e. Samples exist at

Let Output be

instants mT)

With digital filter transfer function H (z )

we have

Y ( z ) X ( z ).H ( z )

m

Professor A G Constantinides

Set

H ( z ) H1 ( z ) z H 2 ( z ) z H 3 ( z ) ...

m

... z

( m 1)

.H m ( z )

And X ( z ) X 1 ( z m ) z 1 X 2 ( z m ) z 2 X 3 ( z m ) ...

... z ( m1) X m ( z m )

are constructed as earlier. Then

Y ( z m ) H1 ( z m ) z 1H 2 ( z m ) ... z ( m1) H m ( z m )

7

X ( z

1

) z X 2 ( z ) ... z

m

( m 1)

X (z )

mG Constantinides

Professor A

Any products that have powers of z 1 less

m

than m do not contribute to Y ( z ) , as this

is required to be a function of z m .

Therefore we retain the products

H1 ( z ) X 1 ( z ) z m H m ( z m ) X 2 ( z m )

m

H m1 ( z ) X 3 ( z )...

... z m H 2 ( z m ) X m ( z m )

Professor A G Constantinides

The structure realising this is

Commutator

H1 ( z m )

Hm (zm )

INPUT

H m1 ( z m )

OUTPUT

H2 (zm )

Professor A G Constantinides

For FIR filters why Downsample and then

Upsample?

fs

LOW PASS

fs

LENGTH N

#MULT/ACC N . f s

fs

DOWNSAMPLE M:1

LOW PASS

LENGTH N

N. fs

#MULT/ACC M

TOTAL #MULT/ACC

10

UPSAMPLE 1:M

LOW PASS

fs

M

fs

LENGTH N

N. fs

#MULT/ACC M

2. N . f s

M

Professor A G Constantinides

A very useful FIR transfer function special

case is for : N odd, h(n) symmetric

with additional constraints on h(n) to be

zero at the points shown in the figure.

11

Professor A G Constantinides

For the impulse response shown

1

h(1).z h(2).z 3 h(3).z 5 h(4).z 7 h(5).z 9

A( ) h(0) h(1).2 cos(T ) h(2).2 cos(3T )

h(3).2 cos(5T )

In general

r 1

A( ) h(0) 2 h

. cos(rT )

r odd

12

Professor A G Constantinides

Now consider 1 2 1 2

T

Then

r 1

A(1 ) h(0) 2 h

. cos(rT )

r odd 2

r 1

A(2 ) h(0) 2 h

. cos r 1 T

r odd 2

T

r 1

h(0) h

. cos(r1T )

r odd 2

13

Professor A G Constantinides

Hence A(1 ) A(2 ) 2h(0)

r 1

Also

A h(0) 2 h

.cos r. .T

2T

r odd

2T

h ( 0)

A(1 ) A(2 ) 2 A

2T

Or

For a normalised response

A

A(0) 1

T

14

Professor A G Constantinides

Thus 2h(0) 1 1

The shifted response

1

~

A( ) A( )

2

is useful

15

1

h(0)

2

Professor A G Constantinides

Interpolator

Example Develop the specs suitable for the

design of a decimator to reduce the

sampling rate of a signal from 12 kHz to

400 Hz

The desired down-sampling factor is

therefore M = 30 as shown below

16

Professor A G Constantinides

Multistage Design of

Decimator and Interpolator

Specifications for the decimation filter H(z)

are assumed to be as follows:

Fp 180 Hz , Fs 200 Hz ,

p 0.002 , s 0.001

17

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The Decomposition

Consider an arbitrary sequence {x[n]} with

a z-transform X(z) given by

n

X ( z )

x

[

n

]

z

n

We can rewrite X(z) as

M 1 k

M

X ( z ) k 0 z X k ( z )

where

n

n

X k ( z ) n xk [n] z n x[Mn k ] z

18

0 k M 1

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The subsequences {xk [n]} are called the

polyphase components of the parent

sequence {x[n]}

The functions X k (z ), given by the

z-transforms of {xk [n]}, are called the

polyphase components of X(z)

19

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The relation between the subsequences {xk [n]}

and the original sequence {x[n]} are given

by

xk [n] x[Mn k ], 0 k M 1

In matrix form we can write

X ( z ) 1 z 1 .... z ( M 1)

20

X0(zM )

M

X1.( z )

..

X . ( z M )

Professor

M

1

A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

A multirate structural interpretation of the

polyphase decomposition is given below

21

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The polyphase decomposition of an FIR

transfer function can be carried out by

inspection

For example, consider a length-9 FIR

transfer function:

H ( z)

h[n] z

n 0

22

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

Its 4-branch polyphase decomposition is

given by

4

1

4

2

4

3

4

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z ) z E2 ( z ) z E3 ( z )

where

1

2

E0 ( z ) h[0] h[4]z h[8]z

E1( z ) h[1] h[5]z 1

23

E2 ( z ) h[2] h[6]z

1

E3 ( z ) h[3] h[7]z

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The polyphase decomposition of an IIR

transfer function H(z) = P(z)/D(z) is not that

straight forward

One way to arrive at an M-branch polyphase

decomposition of H(z) is to express it in the

M

P

'

(

z

)

/

D

'

(

z

) by multiplying P(z) and

form

D(z) with an appropriately chosen

polynomial and then apply an M-branch

polyphase decomposition to P '( z )

24

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

1 2 z 1

H ( z)

13 z 1

Example - Consider

rewrite H(z) as

H ( z)

(1 2 z 1 )(13 z 1 )

(13 z 1 )(13 z 1 )

15 z 1 6 z 2

19 z 2

1 6 z 2

19 z 2

5 z 1

19 z 2

Therefore,

1

where H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )

2

25

1 6 z 1

E0 ( z )

,

1

19 z

E1( z )

5

19 z 1

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The above approach increases the overall

order and complexity of H(z)

However, when used in certain multirate

structures, the approach may result in a

more computationally efficient structure

An alternative more attractive approach is

discussed in the following example

26

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

Example - Consider the transfer function of

a 5-th order Butterworth lowpass filter with

a 3-dB cutoff frequency at 0.5:

H ( z)

27

0.0527864 (1 z 1 )5

1 0.633436854 z 2 0.0557281 z 4

as

2

2

1 0.52786 z

1 0.105573 z

H ( z )

z

2

2

2 1 0.105573 z

1 0.52786 z

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

Therefore H(z) can be expressed as

2

1

2

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )

where

28

E0 ( z )

1

1 0.105573 z

2 1 0.105573 z 1

E1( z )

1

1 0.52786 z

2 1 0.52786 z 1

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

In the above polyphase decomposition,

branch transfer functions Ei (z ) are stable

allpass functions (proposed by

Constantinides)

Moreover, the decomposition has not

increased the order of the overall transfer

function H(z)

29

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

We shall demonstrate later that a parallel

realization of an FIR transfer function H(z)

based on the polyphase decomposition can

often result in computationally efficient

multirate structures

Consider the M-branch Type I polyphase

decomposition of H(z):

30

M 1 k

H ( z ) k 0 z Ek ( z M )

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

A direct realization of H(z) based on the

Type I polyphase decomposition is shown

below

31

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The transpose of the Type I polyphase FIR

filter structure is indicated below

32

Professor A G Constantinides

- Question Bank for SASPUploaded bySugumar Sar Durai
- NEC Cable Tray Sizing Program - CopyUploaded bySimsim Gendy
- Video GuideUploaded byJustin Marais
- 14 Interpolation DecimationUploaded byMallikarjun Deshmukh
- Nyemicdi4T D 12F683(51uS)Uploaded byCahyo Ari Wibowo
- 172Uploaded byNormaNingsih
- Implementation of Gabor Filter on FPGAUploaded byfaruk1991
- Kundur_DTS_Chap11a.pdfUploaded byIamIN
- ProgramUploaded byNicholas Andrew
- Ads 1210Uploaded byTruong van Truong
- STFTUploaded byhananechaba
- LAB10 (1)Uploaded byMuhammadAxadKhataabGujjar
- Advanced Communication Lab-1(2016_17)Uploaded bygemechu
- Assg2Uploaded byKhoi Phan Fof
- interpolation.xlsUploaded byAhmad Fauzan
- IJCTT-V3I3P120Uploaded bysurendiran123
- Q and Error Function Full TableUploaded bypanya prachachit
- PowerSpectra.pdfUploaded bysha3107
- matlab 4Uploaded byUmar Farooq
- clgi001 pr0--08may2015--16-05-55catoutputUploaded byapi-30096208
- eee507_2DFIRDesign1Uploaded bysitaram_1
- MfiUploaded byNareshMalviya
- iir_pzUploaded byGitaArdiani
- MUS422: hw4Uploaded byJames Yu
- p1Uploaded byNasir Sayyed
- RND Guidelines900-1800Uploaded byJean Hakim
- CCP ProgramsUploaded bysupriyadhage
- 1502 Mouse EnUploaded byRupesi Silva
- Trabajo EtasUploaded byLugar De La Mancha Muñoz
- 666Uploaded byDebi Prasad Dash

- electromagnetic inductionUploaded bybhooshan jape
- Nasa ProjectUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Bharath Ane NenuUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- 02 Ix Mpc Bridge-course 50-61Uploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Max ThonUploaded bySridevi Kamapantula
- 38.Chapter 38Uploaded byrajpersonal
- exp2Uploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- NCERT Class 10 Science Lab Manual - Resistors in Parallel - CBSE TutsUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- exp4aUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- exp4bUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Electric Current 11Uploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- HumanEye and Colourful World 7Uploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- 38.Electromagnetic InductionUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- NCERT Class 10 Science Lab Manual - Resistors in Series - CBSE TutsUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- unit aUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- lecture8_cramers_rule.pdfUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Sci LabUploaded bySachin Bhingare
- Coffee MakerUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- The House Wiring is Generally Done With Two SystemsUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Y11 HWK Mains Elec and Power HUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Chapter 1Uploaded byFiona Yong
- Rational and Irrational NumbersUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- PrimaryCurriculum.pdfUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- ICSE 2018.pdfUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Icse Text Books 2017Uploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- Lesson 3 HW Questions - Mark SchemeUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- PrimaryCurriculum.pdfUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur

- Using the AXI DMA Engine.pdfUploaded byNguyễn Hưng Idiots
- Value Engineering for Steel ConstructionUploaded byv
- Best IEEE Projects 2012 Titles - IEEE Final Year Projects @ Brainrich TechnologyUploaded bybrainrichtech
- IEEE 802.21 - Wikipedia.orgUploaded byMohtiPearl
- 21.MineTakeshiUploaded byAisyahNadiahCheDin
- Animación con adobe flashUploaded byMafer Guadalupe
- COLDNODEUploaded byugurugur1982
- AC_VCR_IOMUploaded byAkram Ashmawy
- Emotional Intelligence Training: Case Study - MedradUploaded byIHHPManager
- GBC 10120 PostGrad Viewbook WEBUploaded bykaushikloves
- Transmission Analysis of a Single Hop for Microwave LinkUploaded byMastan Vali
- Hayes, RH, Pisano, GP - Manufacturing Strategy - At TheIntersection of Two Paradigms ShiftsUploaded bySms Raja
- The Chemistry of Petroleum ProductsUploaded byManP13
- 02 Fortran 1x2Uploaded byapmapm
- Pmppmbok5theditionchapter7projectcostmanagement 150316092557 Conversion Gate01Uploaded bysahilkaushik
- BS 4395-1.pdfUploaded byBuzzi Liviu
- Bachelor in Computer Animation DesignUploaded byTajuddin Zakaria
- miakotkol_2Uploaded byJustyn Joregio Ang
- Crazy Days - Tom petersUploaded byAnupam Nanda
- Modeling Studies to Asses Long Term Settlement PLAXISUploaded byAnonymous 5exSer
- Bijan Selected Publications 2016Uploaded bykcarmach
- Schematic Iphone 4G.pdfUploaded byAdrian Arce
- Enviro ControlUploaded byjbaldivisojr
- Notes 08 - Nichols Charts & Closed Loop PerformanceUploaded byJai Gaizin
- EK22832837 AlgeriaUploaded byIgba Tobit Uvieoghene
- CHAPTER 1Uploaded bySarah Fadzlullah
- Interface_Circuits_for_Microsensor_Integrated_Systems.pdfUploaded bytest
- Mechanical Properties of Wood-Based Composite Material chapter_12.pdfUploaded byAshraf Mahmoud
- 921-2014 Es-PDFUploaded byKevin Resendiz Rodriguez
- IkonUploaded bymyanez45