Buyer Behavior

Decision-Making Unit Purchasing Unit Consuming Unit …our marketing strategy just got more complicated

Buyer Behavior
Consumer Buying Process
Need arousal triggering cue internal or external Search and Evaluation information gathering and processing build confidence to make purchase decision

Buyer Behavior
Consumer Buying Process (cont..)
Purchase overcome the risk of purchase a transitory state Cognitive Dissonance post-purchase feedback seek reassurance, information to justify purchase key to brand loyalty

Buyer Behavior
Learning Models
Stimulus Response change behavior from experience habits formed through repetition Cognitive experience not necessary for learning

Buyer Behavior
Buyer Behavior Model
“Black Box” Internal versus External Models …psychological versus sociological



social class reference groups family marketing mix

needs motives wants awareness


personality perception attitude preference

b e h a v i o r

Buyer Behavior Model

Buyer Behavior
Attitudes are anchored in behavior.
There are two ways to change attitudes: …directly through awareness and perception …indirectly through learning and the feedback loop.

Buyer Behavior
weight or importance of a need rational motives economy, efficiency, dependability emotional motives attract opposite gender care of loved ones fear of rejection

Buyer Behavior
Motivation (cont..)
use of emotional motives in marketing “The Thing”

Buyer Behavior
yes or no key first step “top-of-mind” awareness

Awareness (cont.)
enter information search
can come from internal or external triggering cue more receptive to marketing information flows

Buyer Behavior
pattern of characteristics unique to individual persists across broad spectrum of situations not a reliable predictor of buying behavior

Buyer Behavior
process by which one receives, interprets, responds to stimuli selective perception cross-sensory perception subliminal perception

Buyer Behavior
Perception (cont..)
perceived risk
performance risk
Will it function?

psychological risk (psycho-social risk)
Will it enhance well being?

Buyer Behavior
Evaluative organization of beliefs, motives, attributes Attitude change is a key goal in marketing Cognitive dissonance is inconsistent with behavior Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral

Buyer Behavior
Sociological Influences
reference groups
influence attitudes, perceptions, motives reduce risk primary versus secondary formal versus informal aspirant versus disassociative opinion leader/celebrity effects

Buyer Behavior
Sociological Influences (cont..)
Social Class
lifestyle divisions of society based on occupation, wealth, power, education in U.S., largest class is not the lowest individual perceptions are one social class higher than reality

Buyer Behavior
Sociological Influences (cont...)
set of learned responses from a society enculturation versus acculturation

Industrial Buyer Behavior
The industrial buying process looks different but:
….it is just more complex with renamed buying situations Step 1(Needs) is split into three steps, 1, 2, 3, Step 2 (Search/Evaluation) becomes steps 4, 5, 6, Step 3 (Purchase) is step 7, Step 4 (Cognitive Dissonance) is step 8 but is more deliberate and intensive. Instead of convenience and shopping goods, it is called “new task” and “straight rebuy.”

Buyer Behavior
Innovation Process
Bell-shaped (normal) curve of the Innovation Process is the origin of the logistics or “S”- shaped curve. The latter is the first integral of the normal curve.. This is also the basis for the Boston Consulting Group Model. Innovators – 2.5% Early Adopters – 13.5% Early Majority – 34% Late Majority – 34% Laggards – 16% If you are a fan of statistics, you will have noticed that the percent classifications of the Innovation Process are standard deviation percentages.

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