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Powerpoint on basic circuit laws part 1

Powerpoint on basic circuit laws part 1

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Ohms Law

Kirchhoffs Current Law

Lesson 2

Ohms Law:

The voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to the current

moving through the resistor.

i(t)

v(t) _

v(t) = Ri(t)

(2.1)

v(t) = _ Ri(t)

(2.2)

i(t) _ v(t)

+

R

1

Ohms Law:

Directly proportional means a straight line relationship.

v(t)

v(t) = Ri(t)

i(t)

for all conditions of operation.

2

Ohms Law: About Resistors:

The unit of resistance is ohms( ).

A mathematical expression for resistance is

l

R

A

A : The cross sectional area (meters 2 )

: The resistivity m

3

(2.3)

Ohms Law: About Resistors:

We remember that resistance has units of ohms. The reciprocal of

resistance is conductance. At one time, conductance commonly had units

of mhos (resistance spelled backwards).

In recent years the units of conductance has been established as seimans (S).

Thus, we express the relationship between conductance and resistance as

1

G

R

(S)

(2.4)

to use Equation (2.4) to calculate the equivalent resistance.

4

Ohms Law: Ohms Law: Example 2.1.

Consider the following circuit.

+

115V RMS

(ac)

R

(100 Watt light bulb)

V2

P VI

I 2R

R

V 2 1152

R

132.25 ohms

P 100

(2.5)

bulb with an ohmmeter. Debate the two answers.

Ohms Law: Property of Resistance:

Resistivities of some basic materials

Material

silver

copper

aluminum

gold

carbon

germanium

silicon

paper

mica

glass

teflon

1.6x10-8

1.7x10-8

2.8x10-8

2.5x10-8

4.1x10-5

47x10-2

6.4x102

1x1010

5x1011

1x1012

3x1012

Common Use

conductor

conductor

conductor

conductor

semiconductor

semiconductor

semiconductor

insulator

insulator

insulator

insulator

Ohms Law: Property of Resistance

Why are some materials better conductors than others? Consider copper.

valence

electron

_

_

_

_

_

_

+++++

++

+ ++ ++

+ + ++

++ +

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Copper Atom

valence

shell

Ohms Law: Current

Under the influence of an electromotive force, the one valence

electron of each copper atom is pulled from the outer orbit and

moves through the copper space toward a positive potential.

electron flow

copper

wire

resistor

Electron Flow

EMF

electrons move

toward the positive

terminal of the EMF

8

electron flow

Ohms Law: Current

Conventional current flow assumes positive charges move toward the

negative side of the circuit EMF.

positive charge

flow

copper

wire

resistor

Conventional

EMF

negative

side

Flow

Ohms Law: Current

We assume conventional current flow (positive charge movement)

although we know this is not the case.

Assuming conventional current flow does not change the answer(s)

to an electric circuit solution.

red lead

I

E

black lead

E = V = + IR

10

volt meter

Kirchhoffs Current Law

As a consequence of the Law of the conservation of charge, we have:

sum of the currents leaving.

Ia

Id

Ic

Ib

Ia + Ib = Ic + Id

or negative number.

11

Kirchhoffs Current Law

Ia

Id

Ic

Ib

Ia +Ib Ic + Id = 0

or negative number.

12

Kirchhoffs Current Law

Ia

Id

Ic

Ib

Ia - Ib + Ic + Id = 0

or negative number.

13

Kirchhoffs Current Law: Example 2.2.

Find the current I x.

4A

-1 A

2A

6A

IX

9A

Ans: IX =

14

22 A

then use bring to

front to see answer.

Kirchhoffs Current Law: Example 2.3

Find the currents IW, I X, IY, IZ.

2A

9A

IX

12 A

IY

-2 A

IX =

-5 A

IY =

-3 A

IZ =

-8 A

6A

IZ

IW

15

IW =

Kirchhoffs Current Law

Kirchhoffs current law can be generalized to include a surface.

We assume the elements within the surface are interconnected.

A closed 3D surface

with a node. The appearance might be as follows:

16

leaving a closed surface

that contains interconnected

circuit elements

Kirchhoffs Current Law

As a consequence of the Law of the conservation of charge, we have:

jN

Circuit

k M

i j ik

j 1

k 1

r Q

Circuit

ir

r 1

mQ

Circuit

17

im 0

m1

Kirchhoffs Current Law: Example 2.4

Find the currents IA, IB, and IC in the circuit below.

IB

surface

1

4A

IC

2A

9A

-2A

surface

2

18

IA

Kirchhoffs Current Law: Solution for Example 2.4

At surface 1: IB = 2A: At node 1, Ic = 0A: At node 2, IA = 9A

IB

surface

1

4A

node 1

2A

node 2

IA

9A

-2A

surface

2

19

IC

circuits

End of Lesson 2

Ohms Law

Kirchhoffs Current Law

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