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# CHAPTER 3

PROJECTILE MOTION

Projectile motion: a body in free fall moving in
two dimensions that is subject to the forces of
gravity and air resistance and its path is a
“parabola”
Bodies projected into the air are projectiles.
Examples of moving body as projectile:
Shot putt
High jumper
Long jumper
Soccer ball Baseball
Ski jumper
What are the components of the movement?

is a Which velocity is changing as time goes by? .It can be understood by analyzing the: • horizontal • vertical motions separately. This diagram drawn using correct scale.

The speed in the x-direction is constant. It can be seen that vertical positions of the two balls are identical at identical times. The one on the right has an initial speed in the x-direction. while the horizontal position of the yellow ball increases linearly. y x This photograph shows two balls that start to fall at the same time. . in the ydirection the object moves with constant acceleration “g”.

the analysis is similar except that the initial velocity has a vertical component. This diagram is drawn using a correct scale.If an object is launched at an initial angle of θ0 with the horizontal. Which velocity is changing as time goes by? .

Objectives when launching projectiles: – Influence time of flight • Maximum • Minimum – Maximize horizontal displacement – Maximize vertical displacement .

Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory Trajectory: the flight path of a projectile • Angle of projection • Projection speed • Relative height of projection .

Angle of Projection • General shapes – Perfectly vertical (angle = ?) – Parabolic (angle = ?) – Perfectly horizontal (angle = ?) • Implications in sports • Air resistance may cause irregularities .

– For oblique projection angles. . speed determines height. speed determines height and range – For vertical projection angle.Projection speed: Range: – horizontal displacement.

. longer the flight time.Relative Projection Height Difference between and landing height projection Greater the relative projection height. greater the displacement.

punt – Small angle – lower and faster time: baseball throw . then  angle • Complimentary angles (A + B = 90) have the same range – Large angle – higher and slower time: tennis lob. then angle = 450 –  Release height.Optimum Projection Conditions • Maximize the speed of projection • Maximize release height • Optimum angle of projection – Release height = 0. then  angle –  Release height.

81 m/s2 .Analyzing Projectile Motion Initial velocity: • Horizontal component is constant – Horizontal acceleration = 0 • Vertical component is constantly changing – Vertical acceleration = -9.

A projectile launched with velocity will have both vertical & horizontal components of that velocity. Horizontal & Vertical Components: •Vertical is influenced by gravity •No force (neglecting air resistance) affects the horizontal •Horizontal relates to distance •Vertical relates to maximum height achieved •Horizontal and vertical components are independent .

The Influence of Gravity • Major influence of vertical component • Not the horizontal component Force of Gravity: – Constant.81 m/s2) Apex: – Highest Point – Vertical velocity = 0 m/s A body projected straight upward will have the same speed at the end of its flight as it did when it was launched . unchanging – Negative acceleration (-9.

horizontal speed of a projectile remains constant • Air resistance affects the horizontal speed of a projectile • This class. horizontal velocity will be regarded as constant .Influence of Air Resistance • In a vacuum.

a = acceleration. t = time Subscript 1 & 2 represent first or initial and second or final point in time .Equations of Constant Acceleration Galileo’s Laws of constant acceleration: v2 = v1 + at S = v1t + ½at2 V22 = v21 + 2 aS S = displacement. v = velocity.

Equations of Constant Acceleration Horizontal component : a = 0 v2 = v 1 S = v1 t V22 = v21 .

81 m/s2. max height) 0 = v1 + at (total flight time – multiply by 2) . initial velocity of zero (a dropped object) v2 = at S = ½ at2 V22 = 2aS Vertical component at apex: a = 0 0 = v21 + 2aS (det.Equations of Constant Acceleration Vertical component: a = -9.

where the acceleration is g and is down.Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion Projectile motion is motion with constant acceleration in two dimensions. .

Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion: Procedures 1. Examine the x and y motions separately. this is the same in both directions. 2. . Choose an origin and a coordinate system. 3. Decide on the time interval. and choose the object(s) you are going to analyze. Read the problem carefully. and includes only the time the object is moving with constant acceleration g. Draw a diagram. 4. 5.

Plan how you will proceed. . 7.Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion: Procedures 6. you may have to combine some of them. and that vy = 0 at the highest point. List known and unknown quantities. Remember that vx never changes. Use the appropriate equations.

90.0 m from the base of the cliff where the cameras are? Ignore air resistance. . How fast must the motorcycle leave the cliff top to land on level ground below.0-m-high cliff.Driving Off A Cliff A movie stunt driver on a motorcycle speeds horizontally off a 50.

A Kicked Football A football is kicked at an angle θ0 = 37. and (e) the acceleration vector at maximum height. and ignore air resistance and rotation of the ball. (b) the time of travel before the football hits the ground. as shown. (c) how far away it hits the ground. (d) the velocity vector at the maximum height. Assume the ball leaves the foot at ground level.0 m/s.0° with a velocity of 20. Calculate (a) the maximum height. .

or (c) in front of the wagon? .Conceptual Problem: Where does the apple land? A child sits upright in a wagon which is moving to the right at constant speed as shown. while the wagon continues to travel forward at constant speed. If air resistance is neglected. (b) in the wagon. will the apple land (a) behind the wagon. The child extends her hand and throws an apple straight upward (from her own point of view).

(He hadn’t studied physics yet. Show that he made the wrong move. hoping to avoid being hit.) Ignore air resistance. the second boy lets go and falls from the tree.Conceptual Problem: The wrong strategy. . At the instant the water balloon is released. straight at a second boy hanging from a tree branch a distance d away. A boy on a small hill aims his water-balloon slingshot horizontally.