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# Image Analysis

Boundary Detection
Dr. Ziya Telatar
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Image Analysis
IMAGE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Feature Extraction

Segmentation

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Spatial Features
Transform Features
Edges and
Boundaries
Shape Features
Moments
Texture

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Template Matching
Thresholding
Boundary
Detection
Clustering
Texture matching

Classification
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Clustering
Statistical
Decision Trees
Similarity Measures
Min. Spanning
Trees

Image Analysis Preview
• Feature extraxtion is the first and important
step for succesfully analysis
• Segmentation is to subdivide an image into
its constituent regions or objects.
• Segmentation should stop when the objects
of interest in an application have been
isolated.
• Classification is closely related to
segmentation

.Principal approaches • Segmentation based feature extraction algorithms generally are based on one of 2 basis properties of intensity values – discontinuity : to partition an image based on abrupt changes in intensity (such as edges) – similarity : to partition an image into regions that are similar according to a set of predefined criteria.

edges • the common way is to run a mask through the image . lines .Detection of Discontinuities • detect the three basic types of gray-level discontinuities – points .

Point Detection • a point has been detected at the location on which the mark is centered if |R|  T • where – T is a nonnegative threshold – R is the sum of products of the coefficients with the gray levels contained in the region encompassed by the mark. .

|R|  T .Point Detection • Note that the mark is the same as the mask of Laplacian Operation • The only differences that are considered of interest are those large enough (as determined by T) to be considered isolated points.

Example .

e. .2) than other possible directions.. • note: the preferred direction of each mask is weighted with a larger coefficient (i. • the similar idea is used with other masks.Line Detection • Horizontal mask will result with max response when a line passed through the middle row of the mask with a constant background.

at a certain point in the image |Ri| > |Rj|. . • if. R4 denotes the response of the horizontal. R2. R3. respectively. vertical and -45 degree masks. +45 degree.Line Detection • Apply every masks on the image • let R1. that point is said to be more likely associated with a line in the direction of mask i. • for all ji.

• The points that are left are the strongest responses. correspond closest to the direction defined by the mask.Line Detection • Alternatively. for lines one pixel thick. . we simply run the mask through the image and threshold the absolute value of the result. which. if we are interested in detecting all lines in an image in the direction defined by a given mask.

Example .

• we discuss approaches for implementing – first-order derivative (Gradient operator) – second-order derivative (Laplacian operator) • Here. . we will talk only about their properties for edge detection.Edge Detection • the most common approach for detecting meaningful discontinuities in gray level.

• an edge is a “local” concept whereas a region boundary.Basic Formulation • an edge is a set of connected pixels that lie on the boundary between two regions. is a more global idea. . owing to the way it is defined.

image acquisition imperfection . sampling.Ideal and Ramp Edges because of optics.

• Blurred edges tend to be thick and sharp edges tend to be thin . • The thickness is determined by the length of the ramp. an edge point now is any point contained in the ramp. and an edge would then be a set of such points that are connected. which is in turn determined by the degree of blurring. • The length is determined by the slope. • We no longer have a thin (one pixel thick) path. • Instead.Thick edge • The slope of the ramp is inversely proportional to the degree of blurring in the edge.

First and Second derivatives the signs of the derivatives would be reversed for an edge that transitions from light to dark .

Second derivatives • produces 2 values for every edge in an image (an undesirable feature) • an imaginary straight line joining the extreme positive and negative values of the second derivative would cross zero near the midpoint of the edge. (zerocrossing property) • quite useful for locating the centers of thick edges .

0. 1.0 and 10. respectively.1.0. • Second column: firstderivative images and gray-level profiles. .0. • Third column : secondderivative images and gray-level profiles.Noisy Images • First column: images and gray-level profiles of a ramp edge corrupted by random Gaussian noise of mean 0 and  = 0.

Keep in mind • fairly little noise can have such a significant impact on the two key derivatives used for edge detection in images • image smoothing should be serious consideration prior to the use of derivatives in applications where noise is likely to be present. .

Edge point • to determine a point as an edge point – the transition in grey level associated with the point has to be significantly stronger than the background at that point. . – use threshold to determine whether a value is “significant” or not. – the point’s two-dimensional first-order derivative must be greater than a specified threshold.

Gradient Operator f  mag (f )  [G  G ] 2 x  f  2  f         x   y  2 2 y    1 1 2 commonly approx. f  G x   x  f      f  G y     y  • first derivatives are implemented using the magnitude of the gradient. 2 the magnitude becomes nonlinear f  Gx  Gy .

y) is perpendicular to the direction of the gradient vector at that point .y) = tan-1(Gy/Gx) • The direction of an edge at (x.Gradient direction • Let  (x.y) represent the direction angle of the vector f at (x.y)  (x.

.Diagonal edges with Prewitt and Sobel masks Sobel masks have slightly superior noise-suppression characteristics which is an important issue when dealing with derivatives.

Example .

Example .

Example .

y )  f   2 2 x y 2 2 2  f  [ f ( x  1. y )  f ( x. y)  f ( x  1.Laplacian Laplacian operator (linear operator)  f ( x. y  1)  f ( x. y)] . y  1)  4 f ( x. y) 2  f ( x.

and  is the standard deviation 2 2 r2 2 2    2 2 r   2  h( r )    e 4    . h(r )  e  r2 where r2 = x2+y2.Laplacian of Gaussian • Laplacian combined with smoothing as a precursor to find edges via zero-crossing.

Mexican hat positive central term surrounded by an adjacent negative region (a function of distance) zero outer region the coefficient must be sum to zero .

Linear Operation • second derivation is a linear operation • thus. 2f is the same as convolving the image with Gaussian smoothing function first and then computing the Laplacian of the result .

Original image b). Zero crossing . Sobel Gradient c). Threshold LoG g). Spatial Gaussian smoothing function d). Laplacian mask e). LoG f).Example a).

• the zero crossing occur between positive and negative values of the thresholded LoG.Zero crossing & LoG • Approximate the zero crossing from LoG image • to threshold the LoG image by setting all its positive values to white and all negative values to black. .

• Gradient is more frequently used. .Zero crossing vs. (spaghetti effect) – sophisticated computation. Gradient • Attractive – Zero crossing produces thinner edges – Noise reduction • Drawbacks – Zero crossing creates closed loops.

– Usually this involves simplifications • Search for the best group. . so short-cuts are needed.Edge Linking and Grouping • Define what it means for a group to be good. – Usually this is intractable.

y) to line is (a.Parametric Grouping: Grouping Points into Lines Basic Facts about Lines (a.b).b) = c ax + by = c Distance from (x.*(x.b) c (x.y).y) is on line if (x.(a.y) = ax + by .

Line Grouping Problem .

This is difficult because of: • Extraneous data: Clutter • Missing data • Noise .

. • Test to see which is the best.RANSAC: Random Sample Consensus • Generate a bunch of reasonable hypotheses.

RANSAC for Lines
• Generate Lines using Pairs of Points
How many samples?
Suppose p is fraction of points from line.
n points needed to define hypothesis (2 for lines)
k samples chosen.
Probability one sample correct is:

1  (1  p )
n

k

RANSAC for Lines: Continued
• Decide how good a line is:
– Count number of points within e of line.
• Parameter e measures the amount of noise
expected.

– Other possibilities. For example, for these
points, also look at how far they are.

• Pick the best line.

Some comparisons • Complexity of RANSAC n*n*n • Complexity of Hough n*d • Error behavior: both can have problems. . RANSAC perhaps easier to understand. Hough falls apart at some point. • Clutter: RANSAC very robust. • There are endless variations that improve some of Hough’s problems.

Boundary Extraction • Boundaries are linked edges that characterize the shape of an object • Connectivity – Boundaries can be found by tracing the connected edges – On a rectangular grid.or 8connected when it has the same properties as one of its nearest 4 or 8 neighbors. respectively . a pixel is said to be 4.

Neighborhood • (x+1.y-1) .y+1) (x+1.Neighbor with diagonal pixels • (x+1.y+1) (x.y) (x-1.Neighbors of Pixels • 4.y) (x.y+1) (x-1.y-1) • 8.y-1) (x-1.

Boundary Extraction • Contour Following – Contour-following algorithms trace boundaries by ordering successive edge points. • Some example of algorithms are: • Edge Linking and Hueristic Graph Search • Dynamic programming • Hough Transform .

• Basic approaches – Local Processing – Global Processing via the Hough Transform – Global Processing via Graph-Theoretic Techniques .Boundary Extraction • Edge Linking: – edge detection algorithm are followed by linking procedures to assemble edge pixels into meaningful edges.

– all points that are similar according to a set of predefined criteria are linked. 3x3. forming an edge of pixels that share those criteria.Boundary Extraction • Local Processing – analyze the characteristics of pixels in a small neighborhood (say.y) in an image. 5x5) about every edge pixels (x. .

Boundary Extraction Local Processing Criteria 1.y) if |f(x.y0) |  E .f (x0.y) .y0) in a predefined neighborhood of (x. the strength of the response of the gradient operator used to produce the edge pixel – an edge pixel with coordinates (x0.y) is similar in magnitude to the pixel at (x.

y0) | < A .Boundary Extraction Local Processing Criteria 2. the direction of the gradient vector – an edge pixel with coordinates (x0.y) if |(x.y) is similar in angle to the pixel at (x. (x0.y) .y0) in a predefined neighborhood of (x.

y) is linked to the pixel at (x.y) if both magnitude and direction criteria are satified. • the process is repeated at every location in the image • a record must be kept • simply by assigning a different gray level to each set of linked edge pixels.Criteria • A point in the predefined neighborhood of (x. .

Example find rectangles whose sizes makes them suitable candidates for license plates • use horizontal and vertical Sobel operators • eliminate isolated short segments • link conditions: gradient value > 25 gradient direction differs < 15 .

b’) .Boundary Extraction Hough Transformation (Line) xy-plane ab-plane or parameter space yi =axi + b b = .yi) contained on the same line must have lines in parameter space that intersect at (a’.axi + yi all points (xi .

Accumulator cells • (amax.axi + yi . bmin) are the expected ranges of slope and intercept values.q) = A(p. value Q in A(i.q)+1 • at the end of the procedure.j) corresponds to Q points in the xy-plane lying on the line y = aix+bj b = . • all are initialized to zero • if a choice of ap results in solution bq then we let A(p. amin) and (bmax.

• vertical line has  = 90 with  equals to the positive y-intercept or  = -90 with  equals to the negative y-intercept .-plane -plane x cos + y sin =   = 90 measured with respect to x-axis • problem of using equation y = ax + b is that value of a is infinite for a vertical line. • To avoid the problem. use equation x cos + y sin  =  to represent a line instead.

range of    2 D where D is the distance between corners in the image .

Generalized Hough Transformation • can be used for any function of the form g(v.c) = 0 • v is a vector of coordinates • c is a vector of coefficients .

c2. k) increment c1 and c2 . c2. solve of c3 that satisfies the equation update the accumulator corresponding to the cell associated with triplet (c1. j. c3) . c3) cube like cells accumulators of the form A(i.Hough Transformation (Circle) • equation: • • • • • (x-c1)2 + (y-c2)2 = c32 three parameters (c1.

Compute the gradient of an image and threshold it to obtain a binary image. Specify subdivisions in the -plane. Examine the counts of the accumulator cells for high pixel concentrations. Examine the relationship (principally for continuity) between pixels in a chosen cell.Edge-linking based on Hough Transformation 1. 3. . 2. 4.

y) such that • Different choices of . d be unknowns. that should be the line passing through the points .y) be constants and . Just let (x. • Each point gets to vote for each line in the family. if there is a line that has lots of votes. y) there is a one parameter family of lines through this point. d>0 give different lines • For any (x.The Hough Transform for Lines • A line is the set of points (x.

peak finding to reflect noise. too small.Mechanics of the Hough transform • Construct an array representing . d • For each point. adding one at each cell • Difficulties – how big should the cells be? (too big. • Big problem if noise in Hough space different from noise in image space. render the curve (. and we cannot distinguish between quite different lines. d) into this array. . and noise causes lines to be missed) • How many lines? – count the peaks in the Hough array • Who belongs to which line? – tag the votes • Can modify voting.

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• a gap at any point is significant if the distance between that point and its closet neighbor exceeds a certain threshold. .Continuity • based on computing the distance between disconnected pixels identified during traversal of the set of pixels corresponding to a given accumulator cell.

no gaps were longer than 5 pixels .link criteria: 1). the pixels belonged to one of the set of pixels linked according to the highest count 2).

• Shape synthesis is useful in computer-aided design (CAD) of parts and assemblies. cartoon movies.Boundary Representation • Proper representation of object boundaries is important for analysis and synthesis of shape • Shape analysis is often required for detection and recognition of objects in a scene. environmental modeling of aircraft-landing testing and training. etc. . image simulation applications such as video games.

• B-Spline Representation – Piecewise polynomial functions that can provide local approximations of contours of shapes using a small number of parameters. • Fourier Descriptors – Effect of Geometric Transformations – Boundary matching from FD • Autoregressive Models – For arbitrary class of object boundaries. computer graphics.Methods for Boundary Representations • Chain Codes – The direction vectors between successive boundary pixels are encoded. we have an ensemble of boundaries that could be represented by a stochastic model. . • Fitting Line Segments – Staright-line segments give simple approximation of curve boundaries. and recognition parts from boundaries. – If the distance from the farthest curve point to the segment is greater than a predetermined quantitiy. – B-Splines are used in shape synthesis and analysis. join the points to line ends. – Approximate the curve by the line segment joining its end points.

Example: Boundary superimposed .

Region Representation • The shape of an object may be directly represented by the region it occupies – Run-length codes – Quad-trees – Projections .

Moment Representation • The theory of moments provides an interesting and sometimes useful alternative to serious expansions for representing shape of objects – – – – Moment representation theorem Moment matching Orthogonal moments Moment invariants • Translation • Scaling • Rotation and Reflection .

etc. the objects in a scene can be characterized satisfactorily by structures composed of line or arc patterns like handwritten or printed characters.Structure • In many computer vision applications. circuit diagrams and engineering drawings. • Transformations useful for analysis of structure of patterns – – – – Medial Axes Transforms Skeleton Algorithms Thinning Algorithms Morphological Transforms .

moment. and structural representations .Shape Features • The shape of an object refers to its profile and physical structure • These characteristics can be represented by the boundary. region.

Bending Energy .Moments .Roundness .Corners .Orintation .Symmetry .Holes .Regions .Best-Fit Ellipse .Center of Mass .Area .Shape Features Shape Representation Regenerative Features .Boundaries .Euler Numbers .Bounding Rectangle .Structural and Syntactic Measurement Features Geometry Moments .Max-min Radii and eccentricity .Perimetry .Eccentricity .

Texture • Texture is observed in the structural patterns of objects such as wood. whose placement could be periodic. grain. and cloth • A texture contains several pixels. • Natural textures are generally random • Artificial textures are often deterministic or periodic • Texture are classified into two main categories: Statistical and Structural. grass. . quasi-periodic or random. sand.

TextureTransforms .ACF (Autocorrelation Function) .Random Field Models Structural Periodic Random .Closest Distances Other Mosaic Models .Gray Levels .Adjacency .Edge-ness .Extreme Density .Shape .Placement Rules .Edge Density .Concurrence Matrix .Run Lengths .Period .Transforms .Texture Classification of Texture Statistical .Primitives: .Homogeneity .

Scene Matching and Detection • A problem of much significance in image analysis is the detection of change or presence of an object in a given scene • Methods – – – – Image Subtraction Template Matching and Area Correlation Matched Filtering Direct serch • Two Dimensional Logarithmic search • Sequential Search • Hiearchical Search .