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Doing Educational

Hatesh Kumar, S. Faiza Hassan, Samreen Riaz

Doing Educational Research
 A Guide for First Time Researchers
 Edited By: Clive Opie

 Book Review Presented By

 Mr. Hatesh Kumar
 Ms. Samreen Riaz
 Ms. Faiza Hassan

What is



Procedures And
Ethical Concerns




Validity And


Procedures And Ethical Concerns Writing Research .Chapters covered… What is Educational Research Methodology.

What is Educational Research? Hatesh Kumar .

Chapter :1 What is Educational Research? Clive Opie What is Educational Research? Can I do educational Research? .

by the discovery of non-trivial facts and insights. 1983)  A search or investigation directed to the discovery of some fact by careful consideration or study of a subject. (Howard & Sharpes. a course of critical or scientific inquiry. to that of others. hopefully.Research is…. 2001) .  Seeking through methodological processes to add one‟s body of knowledge and. (OED.

(Hitchcock and Hughes.generating self knowledge and personal development in such a way that practice can be improved. reflexive. and professionally oriented activity… regarded as crucial ingredient in the teacher‟s professional role….Educational Research…  „The collection and analysis of information on the world of education so as to understand and explain it better‟. with a significant practicing teachers in that it should be  „viewed as critical. 1989) .

Myths surrounding Educational Research Research requires  The collection of quite large amount of data  Results which can be generalized  A hypothesis  The undertaking of experiments  Objectivity rather than subjectivity  The use of statistics  That something is proved  Specific expertise. as it is difficult .

Can I do educational Research? Practicality Hard work Time consuming Problematic Difficult Requires expertise .

critical and self-critical enquiry which aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge’ (Bassey. . 1990) of the world around them. by all interested in making a ‘systematic. albeit at different levels of depth and sophistication.Educational Research Educational Research is ‘doable’.

Procedures and
Ethical Concerns

Chapter :2

Methodology, Procedures and Ethical Concerns

Pat Sikes

 Working Definitions
 Selecting Methodologies and Procedures

 Researcher Positionality
 Ethical issues and questions

 Methodology refers to the theory of getting knowledge, to the considerations
of the best ways, methods, or procedures, by which data that will provide the
evidence basis for the construction of knowledge about whatever it is that is
being researched, is obtained.
 Methodology is concerned with the description and analysis of research
methods rather than with the actual, practical use of those methods.
 Methodological work is philosophical , thinking, work.
 Methodology is the overall approach to a particular research project, to the
overarching strategy that is adopted.

 To collect information in order to evaluate the interventions that was its . observation and documentary analysis  Action Research project  Tests. and interviews . questionnaire.Procedures/ Methods Specific research techniques that are used to collect and analyze data. Methodology Procedures/ Methods  A Case Study  Interviews. questionnaires.

.Selecting Methodologies and Procedures  Researchers have to be able to justify and argue a methodological case for their reasons for choosing a particular approach and specific procedures. by situational factors of various kinds. influenced by  What can actually be done. and by personal predilection and interests.  Methodology and procedures determine the nature of the findings of the research. about which methodology and procedures will be used.  Decisions. What is practical and feasible.

 The scale of the research and the financial. . political and historical contexts in which their research project will be located.  How they conceptualize the situation they are researching.  The reasons why they are doing the research. personnel and other resources available to conduct it.  The sorts of questions that they are seeking answers for. social.Think about the implications for research design  The physical.  The type of information that their questions will produce.

 Ethical and moral issues relevant at various stages of the research process.Continue…  The nature of the research population and the ability of informants to provide particular types of response.  If applicable. . what are the requirements and expectations of any organization or body that is commissioning and/or funding the research?  When. and over what timescale the research will be done.

.  The nature of knowledge: their epistemological assumptions.Researcher Positionality  The most significant factor that influences choice and use of methodology and procedures is ‘where the researcher is coming from’ in terms of their philosophical position and their fundamental assumptions concerning:  Social reality: their ontological assumptions.  Human nature and agency: specifically their assumptions about the way in which human beings relate to and interact with their environment.

historical and geographical location and so on.Assumptions  Assumptions are colored by values and beliefs that are based in political allegiance. ethnicity. gender. religious faith. sexuality.  Paradigm: A basic set of beliefs that guides action.  Education Research: Two main paradigms  Qualitative and Quantitative . and experiences that are consequent upon social class.

You are classed as a positivist. subjectivist. which focus on individuals or small groups.Research Paradigms Do you view the nature of knowledge as Softer. No knowledge exists that which is objectively. objectivist. based on experience and insight of an essentially personal nature Hard. real. subjective. interpretevist. capable of being transmitted in tangible form OR Empiricist’s view of knowledge i. . You are likely to employ qualitative procedures. You are classed as an antipositivist.e. You are likely to employ quantitative procedures such as surveys & undertake large studies searching for generalisable results. immediately observable.e. more concerned with understanding personal constructs and relatability. Rationalist’s view of knowledge i. knowledge is perceived as created in the mind of the individual.

independent. that can be used to make a „valid‟ interpretation. given and objectively real.or aspects of the social external.  If a social constructivist position is taken it will be necessary to collect subjective accounts and perceptions that explain how the world is experienced and constructed by the people who live in it. or. instead. subjectively experienced and the result of human thought as expressed through language.Ontological assumptions concerning the nature of social reality  Ontological assumptions focus on whether a person sees social reality. thus creating „valid‟ knowledge.  How they view the social world has the implications for the sorts of methodologies and procedures they are likely to consider to be valid means of collecting „valid‟ data. as socially constructed. .

epistemology.  Issue of how words can actually reflect reality and experience is complex and problematic. and particularly the relationship between methodology and procedures and knowledge and truth.either verbally in interviews or written in the questionnaire.  Emphasis on accounts given by informants.Epistemological assumptions concerning the bases for knowledge  Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. is a contentious and controversial area for researchers and consumers of research.  Researchers state their position explicitly …tentative and cautious in presenting conclusion. .  Griffiths suggests that.

 It is a complex area that highlights the issues of social power and agency as well as raising questions about natural behaviors.  If they are felt to make decisions about what to do then procedure will seek explanation and understanding from their perspective will be needed.  Whatever you view inevitably applies to you and research population.innate instinctual forces or external conditions and forces. .  Actions …. then observation and experiment will be appropriate techniques.  If people are believed to behave in a predetermined or reactive way.Assumptions concerning human nature and agency  Concerned with the ways in which human beings are seen to act within the world.

Ethical issues and questions  Research Design  Access  Procedure of Data Collection  Research relationships  Interpretation and analysis  Writing up  Data dissemination  Avoiding harm/Doing wrong .

Research Design  What exactly do you want to know and why do you want to know it? Can you justify your interest?  If you are intending to do anything that is in any way ‘experimental’ what are the implication for the people who will be involved? If you are using a ‘control group’ will people assigned to it miss out any thing that you suspect will be beneficial? Can it be justified? .

can you justify it?  How do you regard the people you are going to be ‘researching’? .Research Design  Insofar as you are able. have you thought about potential unintended or unexpected consequences either to the people directly involved in the research or as a result what you might find out?  If you are intended to do covert research of some kind.

your own students) can you justify why? And are you exploiting their weakness? .Access How are you going to access your research population? If you choose to do your research with people who don’t posses much social power (e. captive populations.g. children.

Procedure of Data Collection Are you asking people things you wouldn’t want to be asked? Are you asking people to do things you wouldn’t want to be asked to do? .

. Are you sure that you are doing as you would be done by?  Could you be accused by „rape research‟?  Are you manipulating people and relationships in order to get „good‟ data?  Are you sensitive to the implications of any differences in terms of social power between researcher and „researched‟.Research relationships  You have a basic moral responsibility towards the people you are working with.

Interpretation and analysis Do you acknowledge any theoretical frameworks or value systems that may influence your interpretations and analysis? .

Writing up Do you ‘own’ your research in your writing up. Do you make the research process appear to be neat and unproblematic? Are informants sufficiently protected in written accounts? .

Data dissemination Are my informants sufficiently protected when it comes to data dissemination? .

Avoiding harm/Doing wrong The aim is not to harm anyone or do any moral wrong. This isn’t simple because one can never know what the unintended outcomes will be? Do the ends ultimately justify the means? .

Writing Research .

Chapter : 3 Writing Research David Hyatt  Expected requirements for student academic writing  A consideration of academic writing conventions  Audience in academic writing  Feedback  Structuring your research-based assignment  Some advice I’ve been given (or wish I’d been given!)  Conclusion .

1986) . somewhere With a big nose. who knows Who’ll trip you up and laugh when you fall.Expected requirements for student academic writing  Using a range of sourcing  Criticality  Evidence  Make your own point  Presentation  Plagiarism If you must write a prose or poems The words you choose should be your own Don’t plagiarize or take ‘on loan’ There’s always someone. 1980s song (Morrissey and Marr.

A consideration of academic writing conventions Specific points to consider……when to us ‘I’ . ‘We’. ‘Distancing’ attitudinal modality Use of nominalization as opposed to verbalization . ‘You’ etc Avoid Direct Claims Use ‘Tentative’.

Other problems  Avoid overgeneralizations  Avoid unsubstantiated claims  Be careful with rhetorical questions  Be specific  Use subject specific lexis  Avoid dramatic/loaded language  Don’t over claim/under claim  Avoid sexist or gender stereotyping language .

For experts related to the field For lay-person .Audience in academic writing The duality of the audience The message is being directed at two discrete audiences.

process and administration . future.Feedback………Tutor’s comment  Phatic  Comment . encouragement  Developmental  Alternatives. sentence. non-evaluative summary  Content  Methodological  Approach. methods. informational  Structural  Discourse. reflective. stylistic level  Positive and negative evaluation.

Structuring your research-based assignment  Abstract  Introduction  Literature Review  Methodology  Results and Analysis  Conclusion  Limitation  Implications and Recommendation .

Some advice I’ve been given (or wish I’d been given!) Time management Space management Referencing as you go Proofreading The value of critical friend .

concise. credible. Goethe claimed that ‘The most original authors are not so because they advance what is new. well structured and well presented. but because they put what they have to say as if it had never been said before. evidenced. Remember to enjoy your writing.’ .Conclusion Good academic writing is clear. critical.

Samreen Riaz Chapters covered… Reliability. Validity And Credibility Research Approaches Research Procedures .

Validity And Credibility Jon Scaife .Reliability.

rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge. .WHAT IS RESEARCH? The systematic.

controlled.McMillan and Schumacher (1989) define research as “a systematic process for collecting and analyzing information (data) for some purpose. empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed relations among such phenomena.” .” Kerlinger defines scientific research as “systematic.

The results of educational research are reported in a way that requires a knowledgeable person to read and implement them.It has been argued that the results of educational research will lead to the improvement of educational practice. . therefore. professional practitioners should maintain a continued interest in research.

Although educational research is complex and demanding. the broad spectrum of research activities ranges from the simple. . single operations to complex combinations of qualitative and quantitative procedures.

 Educational research is systematic and within a broad framework follows the steps of the scientific method. However. there is extensive flexibility in how the steps are implemented. . across different types of studies.

researchers use the approach of scientific inquiry and scientific method. Scientific Inquiry: search for knowledge through recognized methods of data collection.To make research systematic. Scientific Method: research process is considered to consist of a series of sequential steps. . analysis and interpretation.

necessary assumptions and conditions are also identified.Scientific Method: 1) Identifying a problem The nature of the problem is to be defined. 2) Review information The researcher reviews how others approached a similar problem. related knowledge is identified and a framework to conduct the research is established. . i.e. In addition. Literature review.

5) Drawing conclusions Following data analysis. researchers draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the data they had collected.3) Data collection: Collecting data requires a proper organization and control to validate the data to make decisions upon them 4) Data analysis: Data analysis must be done in a manner appropriate to the problem. .


 External Validity: the extent to which research results can be generalized. i. There are two concepts: internal validity and external validity. . researchers cannot generalize them.  Internal Validity: it is the extent to which the results of a research can be interpreted accurately and with confidence.The Validity of Educational Research: Researches must be based on facts.  Internal validity is a prerequisite for external validity because if the results cannot be interpreted accurately with confidence. capable to be justified.e.

external validity. . depends upon the conditions and purposes of the specific research study. rather. It is impossible to reach perfect internal and external validity. researchers must work to reach a balance so that results can be interpreted with confidence and still have some useful generalizability.Generalizability does not mean that the study must be generalized to many various situations and populations.

the data becomes a function of who collected them rather than what actually happened. 1. .If internal reliability is lacking. . Internal reliability refers to the extent that data collection. and interpretation are consistent under the same conditions. External reliability deals with the issue of whether or not independent researchers can replicate studies in the same or similar settings with consistent results. analysis.The Reliability of Educational Research: Reliability refers to the consistency of the research and the extent to which studies can be replicated. 2.

If it is unreliable. results cannot be interpreted with confidence and cannot be generalized.Reliability is a necessary characteristic for validity. Reliability + validity = credibility of research . a study cannot be valid unless it is reliable.

Research Approaches .

. describing what exists. or group. without necessarily determining cause and effect. These studies are a means of discovering new meaning. Descriptive research. also known as statistical research. Correlational research refers to the systematic investigation or statistical study of relationships among two or more variables. determining the frequency with which something occurs. situation. and categorizing information. Descriptive research refers to research that provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual.

description. social welfare characteristics. and analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behaviour. systematic. Experimental research is an objective. resettlement. their ethno genesis. . ethnic groups and other ethnic formations. it involves the systematic collection. as well as their material and spiritual culture.Ethnographic research refer to the investigation of a culture through an in-depth study of the members of the culture. • It studies people. composition. controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables.

its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person . descriptive research approach developed from phenomenological philosophy.  Historical research is research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past  Phenomenological research an inductive. and reformulation of propositions until a theory is developed. it involves formulation. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. data collection method and selection of subjects  Grounded theory research is a research approach designed to discover what problems exist in a given social environment and how the persons involved handle them. testing. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design.


740)” In terms of conducting research. “Qualitative research: research that describes phenomena in words instead of numbers or measures… Quantitative research: research that describes phenomena in numbers and measures instead of words (P. the difference between them is not a dichotomy but a qualitative-quantitative continuum. .General Methodology: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Krathwohl defined them as (1993).

where.Qualitative research is research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically. meanings. attributes. such as beliefs. and symbols Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. not jus what. when. . The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making.

 Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical. theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena  Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods. mathematical or computational techniques. theories and hypotheses • The development of instruments and methods for measurement • Experimental control and manipulation of variables • Collection of empirical data • Modelling and analysis of data • Evaluation of results . The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models. which can include: • The generation of models.

. From a practical point of view. qualitative and quantitative procedures are often mixed. however. their methodologies can be placed on the continuum– not on dichotomy–as they tend towards the qualitative or quantitative.

practical problem. - Purpose: adding to the existing body of knowledge in a discipline. . (supplemental purpose). Applied Research Basic Research - Purpose: solve an immediate.Classification of Educational Research Two systems are described: one based on the goal of the research. basic research does not necessarily provide results of immediate practical use (supplemental purpose). - It may contribute to the general knowledge of some field as it produces a solution for a specific problem. - Although not ruled out. and another on the way in which the research is conducted.

Basic and applied research are important; they should not be differentiated by
hierarchy of value judgments; instead, the purpose of research is the criterion.

An example of Basic Research:
- An experiment on learning in a laboratory setting. The purpose of the experiment
is to contribute to the knowledge about how learning takes place.

An example of Applied Research:

- A curriculum committee is surveying elementary school teachers about materials
of reading programs. The results of the survey would provide the necessary
information for deciding which program to adopt.

Basic research and Applied research are differentiated
by their purpose. The primary purpose of basic
research is the extension of knowledge; the purpose of
applied research is the solution of an immediate,
practical problem.

research is one type of applied research. It is conducted by a professional
educator to aid in making decisions in local schools.
Since it is local, there is concern upon generalizing its results to other educational
settings. Teachers are curious about their own practices rather than generalizing
the outcomes.
Action research is less rigorous in terms of methodology and design than other
educational research.
Action research + research literature = viable approach to making educational
decisions at local level.



Research Procedures .

Research Procedures The research design is the master plan specifying the methods & procedures for collecting & analyzing the needed information in a research study. Research design is a plan of how & where data are to be collected & analyzed. .

which involves the description of research approach. sampling technique.Research design can be defined as a blue print to conduct a research study. tool & methods of data collection & analysis to answer specific research questions or for testing research hypothesis . sampling size. study setting.


Researcher’s interest & motivation. Nature of the research problem. Researcher’s knowledge & experience.Research ethics & principles. 3. . 5.1. 4. 2. Purpose of the study.

7. 8.6. Subjects & participants. 10. . Time. Possible control on extraneous variables. 9.Users of the study findings. Resources.


Chapters covered… Presenting Data Using NUD.IST Using Atlas.ti .

Presenting Data Clive Opie .

Presenting Data Collecting data?=how to analyze data .

Data Quantitative Qualitative Themes Descriptive statistics Parametric tests Inferential statistics Non-Parametric tests Issues .

Quantitative Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Mode frequencies Spearman rank Order ANOVA Statistic analysis Kruskal-Wallis test T-test .

Nominal Data Puts data into categories  Ethnic Groups Sample of Species in a selected ground  Earthworms  Ants Sample of Speech communities in a given area  Punjabi  Potohari  Siraiki .

Ordinal Data  Indicates Order of Numbers is Meaningful  Scores  Example: Scores in a sample population  Low score vs high scores  Likert Scale  Position of Schools on City-League  No arithmetic significance  Intervals between sets of scores  Difference between 60 & 70 Vs 45 and 55 .

Interval Ratio Data
 Refers to numbers which have regular intervals
 Intervals can be interpreted

 Can be extrapolated
 Generalized to other schools in the locality

 Example:
 # of Minority Community students in schools of a selected locality

Descriptive Statistics
Describes group

Age ranges in a class

Age Range

Group Total





Trap of Superfluous Data

Inferential Statistics
Non-Parametric Tests
Parametric Test

Non-Parametric Data  Data  Nominal  Ordinal Data  Can not be Extrapolated  Sphinx Survey. Excel  Kruskal Wallis Test-find if 3 more groups belong to same population  Spearman’s Rank Order-find significant relationship between two sets of Ordinal Data .

Parametric Data  Data  Interval-Ratio Can be Extrapolated Requires careful attention to characteristics ANOVA-mean of more than two samples Pearson’s product Moment correlation-strength of relationship between two interval scales variables  t-test: -testing the level of significance between the mean of two samples .

Presenting Data  Table  Bar Charts  Graphs  Guidelines      Colors Simplicity Labels Total Necessity .

Age profile 80 70 60 50 40 Age profile 30 20 10 0 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 .

Age profile 200 150 100 Age profile 50 0 19-21 22-24 25-27 .

QUALITATIVE Data  Data  Open Questions  Interviews  Descriptions  Observation Notes Challenges  Volume  Creating meaning (themes and issues)  Analysis is not straight forward or quick  Open to subjectivity of researcher .

QUALITATIVE Data  Validity & reliability  Table or charts can be added Positive aspects Connects to social reality Answer more reliably why findings are the way they are Stumble upon new themes .

Using NUD.IST Ann-Marie Bathmaker .

Unstructured Data Indexing.IST Non-Numerical.Using NUD. Searching and Theorizing  Software Package for analyzing Qualitative  To study interviews and Data Analysis Data .

In this Chapter… Practicalities of Using NUD.IST Highlights of Pros & Cons (Criticism) Recommendations for new Users .

Analyzing Data in Qualitative Study Loads of text for analysis Context matters Tone is important & holds meaning Difficult to get a grip on and make connections Difficult to Predict what will be important .

Researchers Feel the need To organize data Build connections Cluster parts of texts together Save time .

Starting with NUD.IST Comes with an Introductory tutorial Lasts 5 hours Printed Manual .

NUD.IST Works as a code and retrieve system Import Text Doc Code Parts of text Retrieve Coded Doc Analyze the text .

Other features Nodes can be further connected to get subcode Memos can be attached to the nodes Coding & links can be modified .

Preparing Text for coding Name files and maintain an index Change names before importing Decide units for codes: Sentence or Paragraphs .

Criticism Might distance the researcher from actual data Categories emerge from data Links are more important .

Criticism Unnecessary or forced linking: It is important to avoid the misapprehension that the coding and computing lend a scientific gloss to qualitative research. (Coffey et al. (Fielding and Lee. Computer encourages users to be clear about what they are doing. 1996) Manual analysis may lead to more unclear stringing which is difficult to get back to. 1998) .

Criticism Facilitates the development of theory in highly organized and systematic way Systematic Indexing Researchers develop their own interpretations which they have to make explicit and justify .

Criticism Tends to distance you from actual data to concentrate on conceptual notions and. ponder and visualize these concepts .

Criticism Increase reliability. validity and generalizability Ease of access and. back and forth movement .

Recommendations Not to be influenced by what the software can do Be clear at all times why an action has been taken The world of human experience should be studied from the perspective of culturally and historically .

ti Michael Pomerantz .Using Atlas.

used to study. analyze and compare data for Qualitative analysis Gives good qualitative descriptions Preferred by researchers working with grounded theory approach (engage in interview/real life dialogue) .ti Software.Using Atlas.

Preparing Text for coding Name files and maintain an index Change names before importing Decide units for codes: Sentence or Paragraphs .

Atlas.ti Works as a code and retrieve system Import Text Doc Code Parts of text Retrieve Coded Doc Analyze the text .

Other features Nodes can be further connected to get subcode Memos can be attached to the nodes Coding & links can be modified .

Additional features Has left & right side panes for codes & texts One word codes Can auto code a word across texts .

Users Views Allows to build networks of Codes (tree & Higher hierarchy) Allows time and space to go back and start all over again Allows categorization of codes. superordinate. (important. Sub ordinate) Allows later division and merger of codes .

Thank you .