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Valves

If the pump is the heart of a hydraulic system then the valve is the brain.
Valves are used to perform a large variety of governing and controlling functions.

Aspects of classification
Form:
a) Spherical
b) c) d) e) Conical

Function:
Poppet
valve

• pressure control valves
• flow control valves

f) Plate

• check valves (non-return valves)

g) Spool valve

• directional control valves

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Valves
Pressure control valves:
• pressure relief valves

• pressure difference valve

• pressure reducing valves

• pressure ratio valve

Pressure relief valve
Has the task to limit the pressure in a hydraulic system or in a part of the system.
The pressure can rise in a hydraulic system if:
- the flow rate from the pump is larger than the flow rate through the actuator
- the volume of a closed system is reduced
- the load of the actuator rises

- heat is introduced into a closed system
- the hydraulic resistance of the system rises

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Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 3 .Valves Pressure relief valve Symbol A x k N C  m Fspring psy s Qp 2005/2006 I.

Pressure relief valve Theoretical basics Curtain surface: Force equilibrium: psys  A  FS  FS 0  c  x Circumference ∙ height = k ∙ x = Ac (1) Bernoulli equation: Qrv  Ac  v  k  x    Qrv  k    x  2 f  2p f  k  x   2 psys f FS 0  cx A (2)   0.0.7 (3) Qrv depends nonlinearly on x or if we express x from (1) x  psys  A  FS 0 c then: Qrv  k    2005/2006 I.6. psys  A  FS 0 c  2 f  psys Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (4) 4 ...

xmax being the displacement when the spring is completely compressed 0  x  xm ax If p > pmax : 2005/2006 I. to (4)  p  k   sys (5)    psys A c  2 f  psys  k   A 2    psys  psys c f     psys const (5) is valid from x = 0 to x = xmax.Pressure relief valve Theoretical basics: * Let psys be the pressure when the valve just opens (x = 0)  psys  A  FS 0 Qrv  subst.    Qrv  const  pmax  psys  psys  const  psys Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 5 .

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 6 .Pressure relief valve Theoretical basics: Qrv psys * psys pmax negative part: belongs to xmax physically impossible 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 7 .Pressure relief valve Hydraulic aggregate: The simplest hydraulic system Pump + pressure relief valve Qp psys Qag user Qrv M reservoir 2005/2006 I.

Qag2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 8 .Hydraulic aggregate Let us derive the characteristics of the complete aggregate. Parallel circuit so: Q p  Qrv  Qag  Qag  Q p  Qrv n = n1 < n = n 2 psys Qrv = Qpump = = = * psys Qag1 Qpump Qrv 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 9 . If for example the rotational speed is increased (orange curve)  then there will be flow through the aggregate even with higher pressure. Wrong! The last section of the curve has to be at the negative Q plane. 2005/2006 I.Pressure relief valve The pressure relief valve always has to be matched with the pump.

whereas the externally operated valve is controlled by an outside pressure. Self-operated → ← externally operated The self-operated valve is controlled by its own pressure. Directly operated → ← pilot operated 2. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 10 . 2005/2006 I. Directly operated – already explained.Pressure relief valve Versions: There are various versions of pressure relief valves: 1.

Pilot valve (high c) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 11 . k   A 2 Valve constant has to be increased: C   c f The area can be increased but this increases size and costs and worsens the sensitivity of the control.Main valve (low c) 2005/2006 I. Consists of two valves: At higher flow rates the losses at a directly operated valve would be very large. Solution: two valves: pilot operated valve . The spring constant can be decreased but this increase against the size. Another problem is that with high flow rate the dynamics of the valve gets worse.) Again bad for dynamics. (Large preloading is necessary.Pilot operated pressure relief valve Pilot operated is applied when large flow rates have to be controlled.

The valve is closed as long as the limit pressure is not reached at the pilot valve. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 12 . 2005/2006 I.Pressure relief valve Pilot operated: Q Thr p1 p2 x spring 1 spring 1 A main valve pilot valve p1 is the system pressure that has to be limited.

Pressure relief valve Pilot operated: In this case the pressure p1 acts on both sides of the valve and the valve is in equilibrium: p1 = p2. The pilot valve can be spatially separated from the main valve – the control can be exercised from a distance. A flow starts through the throttling valve so that p1 > p2. In the pressure rises above the limiting pressure of the pilot valve then the pilot valve opens. This is more favourable because it allows a softer spring in the main valve. More favourable static characteristics Better dynamic characteristics 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 13 . If A(p1-p2) > FS01 (preload force of spring 1) then the main valve also starts to open.

Operation line 8 . 6 .11 . 9 .7 .5 . 4 .Main valve 2 .11 . 3 .Spring 15 .elővezérlő szelep.fojtás.rugó.Throttle 6 . Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 14 .Discharging 1 . 2 .főtolattyú.13 .13 . 15 .vezérlő vezeték.Pilot valve 3 – Main spool 4 .7 .szeleptest.5 .főszelep.Valve body 9 .tehermentesítés 2005/2006 I.Pressure relief valves Pilot-operated pressure relief valve 1 . 8 .

Pressure relief valve Characteristic curves of pressure relief valves p1 directly operated pilot operated ideal Simplified symbol of a pilot operated pressure relief valve Qrv Applications of pressure relief valves: . Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 15 .Overflow valve (pressure source always open produces large losses. should be used only for small power) .Sequence valves (turn-on or turn-off) 2005/2006 I.Safety valve (most common) .

Pressure relief valve Safety valve and overflow valve: p Qp p RV p pl Safety valve 2005/2006 I. Qs RV pl Overflow valve (pressure source) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 16 .

“Turn-off” valve is applied when two pumps (one high pressure. one low pressure) work in parallel. the pressure rises and a second user is switched through the valve. 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 17 . If the pressure drops below the limiting value of RV1 then the valve closes and the pump delivers into the system again. If the pressure is high enough then only the high pressure pump works. When one working step is finished .Pressure relief valve Sequence valves: “Turn-on” valve is used when two or more users are fed by the same pump.

Pressure relief valve Sequence valves: Sequence valve (turn on) Qp > QS pl1 pl2 RV2 RV1 Sequence valve (turn off) Check valve Q Here the RV1 is an externally operated valve. HPP pl1 RV2 2005/2006 I. pl2 LPP RV1 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 18 .

dynamics characteristics depend on the whole system. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 19 .Pressure relief valves Dynamic behaviour of pressure relief valves: Sudden opening or closing leads to oscillations of the valve. The dynamic behaviour can be tested by a sudden application of the pressure on the valve. Stationary characteristics depend only on the valve. 2005/2006 I.

Pressure relief valve Dynamic behaviour of pressure relief valves: p1 V1 V2 V3 p1 Qp Qrv p DV RV t Test rig V1 < V2 < V3 First linear rise. V is the volume of fluid between pump and valve → capacity and inductivity changes. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 20 . There is a differential equation system which can be solved to simulate the process. 2005/2006 I. then damped oscillation.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 21 .Big pictures End of normal presentation Beginning of big pictures 2005/2006 I.

Poppet valve Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems f) Plate g) Spool valve 22 .Valves Form a) Spherical b) c) d) e) Conical 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 23 .Valves Pressure relief valve 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 24 .Valves Pressure relief valve 2005/2006 I.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 25 .Valves Pressure relief valve 2005/2006 I.

Valves Pressure relief valve 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 26 .

Valves Pressure relief valve Symbol A x k N C  m Fspring psy s Qp 2005/2006 I. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 27 .