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Geisler, Norman Systematic Theology, Vol.

3 TH 513 Systematic Theology II
TH 513 Systematic Theology II Dr. Mark E. Hardgrove

Systematic Theology II, Vol. 3
Chapter Three

“The Origin of Sin”
pp. 80-99

God’s Permission of Sin
Atheism affirms evil but denies God. Pantheism affirms God but denies evil. Theism affirms both God and evil. Herein lies the dilemma for theists.

God’s Permission of Evil
Geisler’s answer the to theists’ dilemma: God cannot produce sin God cannot promote sin God can permit sin God can produce a greater good by allowing sin.

The Origin of Sin on Earth by Humans
Aristotle's “six types of causes” : 1.Efficient Cause—that by which something comes to be(the carpenter) 2.Final Cause—that for which something comes to be (the dwelling in which to live) 3.Formal Cause—that of which something comes to be (the house’s form or structure) 4.Material Cause—that out of which something comes to be (the building materials) 5.Exemplar Cause—that after which something comes to be (the blueprint) 6.Instrumental Cause—that through which something comes to be (the tools)

The Origin of Sin on Earth by Humans
Application of “six types of causes” to the cause of sin:
1.Efficient Cause—Person (that by which sin came to be) 2.Final Cause—Pride (that for which sin came to be) 3.Formal Cause—Disobedience (that of which sin came to be) 4.Material Cause—Eating forbidden fruit (that out of which sin came to be) 5.Exemplar Cause—None; it was the first human sin (that after which sin came to be) 6.Instrumental Cause—Power of free choice (that through which sin came to be)

The Nature of Free Will
Three basic logical possibilities regarding the nature of free choice: 1.Determinism: the view that all human actions are caused by another, not by one’s self. Hard determinism does not allow for any free choice at all. Soft determinism posits free choice but sees it as completely controlled by God’s sovereign power. 2.Indeterminism: is the position that human actions are not caused by anything. They are simply indeterminate 3.Self-determinism: is the doctrine that human free actions are self-caused, that is, caused by one’s self.

Origin of Earthly Evil Through Human Free Will
Adam exercised free will, selfdeterminism, in disobeying God. Adam’s freedom involved a choice between good and evil, he had the power to obey or disobey. Adam’s choice for evil could have been avoided, evil was not inevitable for Adam. If it had been inevitable, then he could not have been held accountable for his actions.

The Nature of God’s Free Will
The original humans were free to sin or not to sin. God is free, and yet God cannot sin, He cannot even be tempted to sin (Ja. 1:13) In heaven free choice becomes what it is for God: the self-determined ability to choose only good. Heaven is not the destruction of true freedom, but the fulfillment of it.

Systematic Theology II, Vol. 3
Chapter Four

“The Nature of Sin”
pp. 100-121

Two basic kinds of sin:
1.Sins of Commission: doing what we should not. 2.Sins of Omission: not doing what we should do.

Biblical Basis for the Nature of Human Sinfulness

Biblical Basis for the Nature of Human Sinfulness Seven Detestable sins (Prov. 6:16-19):
• Proverbs 6:16-19 (New International Version) •  16 There are six things the LORD hates,        seven that are detestable to him: •  17 haughty eyes,        a lying tongue,        hands that shed innocent blood, •  18 a heart that devises wicked schemes,        feet that are quick to rush into evil, •  19 a false witness who pours out lies        and a man who stirs up dissension among brothers.

Sin: The Hebrew world often translated “sin” is chata, meaning “to miss,” “to forfeit,” or “to lack.” The basic Greeek word for sin is harmartia, which means “to miss the mark,” “to err,” “to sin.” Trespass: The Hebrew root word is maal, which means “to cover up,” “to act covertly, that is, treacherously, or grievously.” Trespass is paraptoma which means “to slip,” “to lapse,” “to fall,” “to stumble aside,” “to offend,” or “to sin.”

The Chief Names for Sin

The Chief Names for is avon, which means Sin Iniquity: The Hebrew
“perversity,” “fault,” “iniquity.” The Greek word is adikia, meaning “morally wrong,” “unjust,” “unrighteous.” Evil: The Hebrew root word is ra, which means “bad,” “harmful,” “wrong,” even “calamity.” The Greek words for evil are poneros, meaning “evil in effect.” Wickedness: The Hebrew rasha, which means “morally bad” or “ungodly.”

Sin as Unbelief: “Without faith it is impossible to please God” (Heb. 11:6).

The Nature of Sin in Relation to God

Sin as Rebellion: “Rebellion [is as] the sin of witchcraft . . .” (1 Sam. 15:23) Sin as Transgression: (Rom. 5:17; 1 John 3:4; Ps. 51:4) Sin as Pride: At the root of all sin is pride (1 Tim. 3:6)

Degrees of Sin
Contrary to widely held opinion, not all sins are considered (by God) to be equal. Jesus said there were “weightier matters of the law” (Matt. 23:23, KJV), such as for example, mercy and justice over tithing. (Matt. 22:38; John 19:11). The more severe eternal punishment for some is due to the heaviness of the sins they have committed (Rev. 20:12; cf. also, 1 John 5:16; 1 Cor. 11:29-30; Matt. 12:32)

Theological Basis for the Nature of Human Sinfulness From a theological standpoint, sin is anything that falls
short of God’s perfect moral nature. 1.God is Holy 2.Sin is being Unholy 3.God is Just (Righteousness) 4.Sin is Unrighteousness (Injustice) 5.God is Perfect 6.Sin is Moral Imperfection 7.God is Jealous 8.Sin is the Absence of Godly Jealousy and the Presence of Ungodly Jealousy (Envy) 9.God is Love 10.Sin is being Unloving 11.God is Truth 12.Sin is being Untruthful