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# FSM Design and Optimization

## Finite State Machine (FSM)

A Digital Circuit, in general, can be subdivided into two
parts:
Combinational part A circuit whose output is a function of its
current inputs only
Sequential part A circuit whose output is a function of its current
inputs plus the past inputs [requires memory elements such as latches
or flip-flops]

## FSM is a mathematical abstraction of a Sequential Circuit

A System - comprising of inputs, outputs, and states while modeling
time as discrete instants at which inputs or outputs can change
Synchronous FSM when states and output transitions are
synchronized with a clock (positive or negative edge)
Asynchronous FSM - when states and output transitions can occur
at any time in response to input changes
NDG on FSM

## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

FSM Models
Mealy Model Contains three components:
State Memory to store the current state S(t)
State Transition Function to determine the next state
S(t+1) depending upon the current state S(t) and the input X(t)
Output Function which generates the output Y(t) as
function of the current state S(t) and the input X(t)

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Models Contd

Moore Model Similar to Mealy Model except that Output
Function which generates the output Y(t) as function of the
current state S(t) only.

## Fig-02: Moore Model of FSM

Both Mealy and Moore Models can be mapped into each other
Mealy Machines usually have fewer state variables (memory
elements)- Widely used in Engineering Applications
Moore Machines are simpler to analyze mathematically
NDG on FSM

## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Models Contd

A Problem with Mealy Machine (as shown in Fig-01)
Output may have glitches. So, a slightly modified version of
Mealy Machine is more commonly used.

FSMs ?
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Models Contd

Autonomous FSM Special FSM having no inputs, e.g. LFSR
Communicating FSMs Two or more FSMs interacting with
each other

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps

1. Understand the Specifications
2. Problem Definition Using State Diagram and/or State Table
3. State Minimization Removal of redundant internal states
4. State Assignment Assigning binary codes to the states
5. Determination of State Transition Function and Output
Function Equations
6. Logic Equation Minimization
7. Design Mapping to a given Technology or Device

## Steps 3, 4 and 6 are Optimization Problems valuable

but not necessary steps

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps Contd

Step-1: Understanding the Specifications
A Simple Vending Machine Design Example: [a] Accepts 1 or 2
Rupees Coins [b] Delivers a Pak-Cola bottle of drink costing
Rupees 3 [c] Provides change where applicable
Rs. 1 Coin

Vend

COINS

Input Conditioning

Output
Drivers

FSM
Rs. 2 Coin

Drink / Change

Change

CLOCK
Fig-05: A Vending Machine Model

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps

Contd
Step-2: State Diagram
Representation
Each State is represented as a circle
with output arrows
Inputs: Rs. 1: Rs. 2 00/00 Outputs: Vend: Change
Next to the arrow, input and outputs
are given
For Vending Machine, FSM remains in
state S0 until there is some coin, either
State Name
of Rs. 1 or Rs. 2 inserted.
S0
Upon such an event, depending upon
Idle
the coin type, it switches to another state
Description
FSM should not activate the Vend /
Change driver unless the credit equals or
10/00
01/00
exceed the Rs. 3
A state transition diagram can be
Fig-06: Notation used in State Diagram Representation
drawn as shown in Fig-07(Next Slide)

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps Contd

Step-2: State Diagram Representation Let us Complete it
Inputs/Outputs = Rs.2:Rs.1/Vend:Change
S0

S1

S3

S7

S2

S4

S5

S6

S8

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps Contd

Step-3: State Minimization
Equivalent States: Two states are said to be equivalent if they
have identical next states and outputs.
00/00

00/00

Inputs/Outputs=
Rs.2:Rs.1/Vend:Change

Reset

S0

Reset

S0

00/00

00/00

00/00

00/00

01/10

01/00

S2

S2

10/10

10/11

00/00

S1

10/00

01/00

S1
S3

[a]

[b]

Fig-08: State Minimization Step-03 [a] Cyclic State Diagram of VM [b] Reduced FSM for VM

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps Contd

Step-3: State Minimization Contd
Addition of Invalid State(s) due to State Assignment (Binary Codes)
00/00

Inputs/Outputs=
Rs.2:Rs.1/Vend:Change

S0

00/00

S3
xx/00
00/00

01/10

01/00

S2

10/10

S1

10/00

10/11
01/00

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Step-4: State Assignment and State Transition Table
Table-01: State Transition Table for Vending Machine

Current State

Inputs = Rs.2:Rs.1

Next State

Outputs= Vend:Change

S0
S0
S0
S1
S1
S1
S2
S2
S2
S3

00
01
10
00
01
10
00
01
10
XX

S0
S1
S2
S1
S2
S0
S2
S0
S0
S0

00
00
00
00
00
10
00
10
11
00

Current State

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S0
S1
S2
S3

00
S0, 00
S1, 00
S2, 00
S0, 00

01
11
S1, 00
S0, 00
S2, 00
S0, 00
S0, 10
S0, 00
S0, 00
S0, 00

10
S2, 00
S0, 10
S0, 11
S0, 00

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Step-4: State Assignment and State Transition Table
Table-02: Compact State Transition Table for VM
Current State

S0
S1
S2
S3

00
S0, 00
S1, 00
S2, 00
S0, 00

01
11
S1, 00
S0, 00
S2, 00
S0, 00
S0, 10
S0, 00
S0, 00
S0, 00

10
S2, 00
S0, 10
S0, 11
S0, 00

00
01
10
11

00
00, 00
01, 00
10, 00
00, 00

01
11
01, 00
00, 00
10, 00
00, 00
00, 10
00, 00
00, 00
00, 00

10
10, 00
00, 10
00, 11
00, 00

## Step-5: Determination of Logical Equations

s1(next) = /s1*/s0*Rs.2*/Rs.1 + /s1*s0*/Rs.2*Rs.1 + s1*/s0*/Rs.2*/Rs.1
s0(next) = /s1*/s0*/Rs.2*Rs.1 + /s1*s0*/Rs.2*/Rs.1

## Vend = s1*/s0*Rs.2 + s1*/s0*Rs.1 + /s1*s0*Rs.2*/Rs.1

Change = s1*/s0*Rs.2*/Rs.1
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Steps Contd

Step-6-7: Simplification of Logic Equations and
Hardware Implementation
Use of K Maps or Other Methods
Implementation is Technology Dependent
Clock
Rs. 2
Rs. 1

Vend

Combinational Logic
Gates

Change

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Example Huffman Codec

Used for JPEG/MPEG Compression
Relies on known probability of a set of fixed symbols

## Table-04: Symbols with Their

Binary Code and Frequency

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Example Huffman Codec Contd

Huffman Decoder Circuit Implementation as FSM

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

FSM Optimization
Three Ways to Optimize the HW Complexity of FSM
State Minimization
State Assignment
Logic Equation Minimization

## State Minimization Methods

State Merging by Observation
State Partitioning
Application of Implication Tables

## State Merging by Observation

Vending Machine Example
Bit Sequence Detector

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Merging by Observation
Bit Sequence Detector A Circuit that generates an output
Z = 1 when it detects a bit sequence from a serial data input D
as 001, 010, 100, or 111.

Fig-12: Bit Sequence Detector [a] State Diagram [b] State Table

## S3 and S6 are Equivalent, and so are S4 and S5.

Eliminate S5 and S6
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Merging by Observation Contd
Bit Sequence Detector after State Minimization

Fig-13: Minimal State Bit Sequence Detector [a] Stat Table [b] State Diagram

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Partitioning
An FSM Example

## Fig- 14: State Table for FSM of State

Partitioning Example

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Partitioning Contd
An FSM Example
Step-1: State Partitioning by Outputs Divide the states into
sets with identical outputs

## Step-2: State Partitioning with Next States For states in

each set, find their next states separately

NDG on FSM

## Next State sets, for both input

0 and 1, do not belong to any
other single set of states
FPGA Based System Design
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Partitioning Contd
An FSM Example
Step-3: Repartitioning based on Next States After Step-2, two
things have happened: next state group for C (input = 0) now belongs to
B2, however, next state group for A (input = 1) now belongs to no single
state group, so, A partition has become invalid

## NOW all the next state groupings belong

to some single state partition/group.
WHAT is Final Partitioning ?
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Partitioning Contd
An FSM Example
Finally We got a State Partitioning Where

Next outputs are the same for each state in the same state
partition/group
AND
Next states are the same for each state in the same
set/group
Final Optimized FSM has got only
Five States.!
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## Self-study Exercise: Application of

Implication Table: Easy to Computerize
and Suitable for Larger FSM
Optimization

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Assignment
Assigning Unique Binary Codes to the States of a Minimized
FSM
State Minimization has a Unique Technology-Independent
Solution, however, State Assignment Depends on
Technology such as PLA, ROM, PAL, logic gates
Type of storage circuit, D-latches or FF

## For a FSM of r Rows (States), with n-bit State Variables, All

Possible Permutations are
N = 2n ! / (2n-r)!
Many, among above Assignments, are just Rearrangements,
according to McCluskey, Number of Distinct Assignments is
Reduced to
ND = (2n -1)! / (2n-r)!* n!
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Optimization Contd

State Assignment Contd
Even the number given by McCluskey is still very large

## Very Complex Problem, called Intractable or np-Complete.

Such a problem usually have no optimal solution but some
solution based on heuristics (thumb rules or simple rules)

## Aim here would be to have Rules that provide maximum

number of 1s in adjacent cells of next-state truth table for
better k-map reduction

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## FSM Design and Optimization

FSM Optimization Contd
* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## State Assignment Contd

Rule-1: States with the same next state for a given input
condition should be assigned codes differing in one (binary) bit
position only. For Example,

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## FSM Design and Optimization

FSM Optimization Contd
* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## State Assignment Contd

Example-01: Consider the Bit Sequence Detector FSM

## Applying Rule 2, S1 and S2 should be assigned logically

adjacent codes, so, let S1 = 100 and S2 = 101
Applying Rule 1, S3 and S4 both have the same next state with
given input condition, so, S3 and S4 are assigned logically
adjacent codes. S3 = 110 and S4 = 111
S0 can be assigned 000 (arbitrary), and unassigned states would
be 010, 011, and 001
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## FSM Design and Optimization

FSM Optimization Contd
* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## State Assignment Contd

One-Hot State Assignment
Sometimes, instead of log2 r bi-stable latches, it is more
efficient (and convenient as well ) to have r latches/flip-flops,
i.e. one for each state. It is called One-Hot State Assignment.
At any time, only one FF will be set (FF corresponding to
the state where FSM lies at that instant)
No State Assignment is required
One-hot state assignment is particularly suitable for FPGA
(LUT and MUX based Architecture) implementation of FSM

## Number of FF required is much higher than Min. Length

State Encoding
Slower in Operation as compared to other option.
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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Implementation- HW Considerations

Fig-16:
Generic Block
Diagram of
FSM

Implementation Alternatives
Standard ICs Suitable for Simple Designs
PROM Suitable for many Outputs/States, No Logic Minimization needed,
Exhaustive Implementation for all Possible Input Combinations, Size grows
Exponentially
Fig-17:
Implementation of
FSM with PROM

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

Fig-18:
Asynchronous
Inputs to FSM

## Asynchronous Inputs A Possible Source of Race Condition

Asynchronous input A to FSM, while making transition from 0 to
1, as shown above may give rise to a wrong state transition
SOLUTION: Synchronize all the Asynchronous Inputs to FSM using a
Latch clocked by the FSM clock
Fig-19:
Synchronizing
Asynchronous
Inputs

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Implementation- HW Considerations Contd

Types of Flip-Flops at Output
Outputs of Programmable Macro-Cells or LEs of CPLDs/FPGAs
are Configurable
Inverting/Non-Inverting
Register or Combinational
D Flip-Flop, S-R FF, J-K FF, or T-FF, any type is Possible
T-FF or J-K FF can Produce more Efficient Implementation
(fewer product terms in Boolean Equations)
Better CAD tools make better choice automatically

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Chart

An Alternative Method to Represent FSM based on FlowChart Notation Popularized by Christopher Clare Designing
Logic Systems Using State Machines

[a]

## FSM is in one State Block per state

time (Clock Cycle)
Single Entry Point for each State
Block
For each combination of inputs,
only one unambiguous exit path
Outputs asserted high, low, highimpedance until the next clock cycle
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[b]
Fig-20: ASM Chart [a] ASM Elements [b]
An ASM Block

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Chart Contd

ASM Construction Rules
Each State can have one and only
one State Box
Outputs depending on the Current
State only (Moore Model) are
represented by Square Box
Outputs depending on the Inputs
(and of course the Current State), as
in Mealy Model, are represented by
Rounded Box
Decision Box contains the
Conditions for the Input Variables
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Simplification

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Chart Contd

ASM Advantages over (Bubble) State Diagram
ASM Chart reflects HW Algorithm
better than (Bubble) State Diagram
Representation of FSM
ASM Chart avoids Transition
Conflicts that could Occur in State
Diagram Representation of FSM
EXAMPLE: Inputs I3I2I1I0 = 1101, 1011,
and 1111 all will make both transitions
to be True.
Fig-22: Possible Conflicts in State
Diagram Representation of an FSM

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Chart Contd

ASM Representation of Vending Machine
Rs.0

00/00

S0

00/00

00/00

01/10

01/00

Rs.1

Rs.1

Rs.2

Rs.1

10/00

S2

10/10

S1

Rs.2

Inputs/Outputs=
Rs.2:Rs.1/Vend:Change

S3
xx/00

Rs.2

10/11
01/00

[a]

Rs.1

Rs.2

[b]

Fig-23: Mealy Model of Vending Machine [a] State Diagram [b] ASM Chart

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Using Verilog HDL

Mealy FSM and Its RTL Coding
Fig-24: Mealy FSM to
be Coded in Verilog
HDL

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Using Verilog HDL Contd

Mealy FSM and Its RTL Coding Contd

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Mealy FSM and Its RTL Coding Contd
Contd from Prev. Slide

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Mealy FSM and Its RTL Coding Contd
Contd from Prev. Slide

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Mealy FSM and Its RTL Coding Contd
Contd from Prev. Slide

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## FSM Design and Optimization

* Chapter # 5 and Peter Cheung Lecture Notes-DSD-06

## FSM Design Using Verilog HDL Contd

Moore FSM and Its RTL Coding

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Moore FSM and Its RTL Coding
Contd from Prev. Slide

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Moore FSM and Its RTL Coding
Contd from Prev. Slide

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## FSM Design and Optimization

Moore FSM and Its RTL Coding
Contd from Prev. Slide

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