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BP Handbook

Meeting Zurich 4.6.2007

Workflow of the meeting

What is a BP Handbook?
Form of the BP Handbook
Title of the sub chapters
Presentation of the technical suggestions to the first summary of
9.5.2007 from the partners
Discussion
AIM: Agreement on the content

What is a BP Handbook?
What does European Reference Manual mean?
Case studies
Methodology
Country reports (see also WP3)
Should the BP Hand book contain only published material???
Difference between papers on the state of the art (WP3) and the BP
Handbook?
Should not drift in a too academic direction, but be very pragmatic for
users who are not yet familiar with the matter?
Should include the potential of geothermal energy across Europe for
political decision makers?

Comments Steering Committee ?

Comments on the title


Title: Chapter 1 of the European Reference Manual for the development of
Unconventional Geothermal Resources and Enhanced Geothermal
Systems
Chapter 1a of the Best Practice Handbook on the definition of innovative
concepts for investigating geothermal energy (or site?)
Chapter 1b of the Best Practice Handbook on generic studies for
Unconventional Geothermal Resources and Enhanced Geothermal
Systems in contrasting geo-environments in Europe
Comments
1. The title of the Part 1a seems to me not very precise. The point is
that "innovative concepts" are equally applicable both to "Case
studies" (Part 1a) and to "Generic studies" (Part 1b).
Explanation of generic studies:
Generic studies are performed when the real field situation cannot be
accessed. This includes computer simulations, laboratory
investigations and field experiments.
Comments
2. If the Part 1b is planned to be devoted to the methodological studies
it is not necessary to include in the title the words "in contrasting geoenvironments in Europe".
Generic studies are a kind of theoretical (synthetic) studies. Sense of
completely general studies? A general study always has to refer to a
given problem (continental or site specific problem) with determined
aspect of a problem by modeIing or lab measurements, etc.

Form of the BP Handbook

Decision Steering Committee?

Suggestion GFZ:
BEST PRACTICE FOR THE STORAGE OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS
Observations and guidelines from the SACS and CO2STORE projects

(Edited and compiled by: Andy Chadwick, Rob Arts, Christian Bernstone, Franz
May, Sylvain Thibeau & Peter Zweigel)

Form of BP Handbook Suggestion CO2

The document is framed around a seven-stage template for site development, from
initial project inception to eventual site closure, outlined below.
1. Statement of storage aims and benefits
2. Site screening, ranking and selection
3. Site characterisation
4. Site design and planning consent
5. Site construction
6. Site operations
7. Site closure
The document is based mainly on our experiences with a limited number of casestudies and, when considering its applicability to other potential storage sites,

Form of BP Handbook Suggestion CO2

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction to the Case Studies 2
Sleipner (offshore Norway) 2
Kalundborg (onshore/offshore Denmark) 3
Mid-Norway (offshore Norway) 4
Schwarze Pumpe (onshore Germany) 5
Valleys (offshore UK) 7
2. STATEMENT OF STORAGE AIMS AND BENEFITS 9
2.1 Emissions reduction targets 9
2.1.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 10
Sleipner 10
Kalundborg 10
Mid-Norway 12
Schwarze Pumpe 12
Valleys 13
2.2 Local environmental impacts 13
3. SITE SCREENING, RANKING AND SELECTION 15
3.1 Storage Capacity 15
3.1.1 Principles of storage 16
3.1.2 Storage capacity calculation 17
3.1.3 Storage efficiency 20
3.1.4 Observations from the COSTORE case-studies 21
Sleipner 21
Kalundborg 23
Mid-Norway 25
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 25
Valleys 29
3.1.5 Generic Findings 29
3.2 Basic Reservoir Properties 30
3.2.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 30
Sleipner 30
Kalundborg 32
Mid-Norway 37
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 43
Valleys 45
3.2.2 Generic Findings 49

3.3 Basic Overburden Properties 50


3.3.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 50
Sleipner 50
Kalundborg 50
Mid-Norway 51
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 51
Valleys 53
3.4 Basic Reservoir flow simulations 53
3.4.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 54
Sleipner 54
Kalundborg 54
Mid-Norway 54
Generic study of dipping aquifers 63
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 64
Valleys 64
3.4.2 Generic Findings 64
3.5 Safety assessment of prospective CO2 storage sites
65
3.5.1 Risk and risk criteria 65
3.5.2 Health, Safety and Environmental risks with CO2 storage
65
3.5.3 Local HSE risks 66
3.5.4 Global HSE risks 66
3.5.5 Offshore and onshore issues 66
3.5.5.1 Offshore 67
3.5.5.2 Onshore 67
3.5.6 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 69
Kalundborg 69
Mid-Norway 69
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 70
Valleys 70
3.6 Conflicts of use 70
3.6.1 Contamination of other resources 70
3.6.2 Surface installations and pipeline routes 71
3.6.3 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 72
Sleipner 72
Kalundborg 72
Mid-Norway 74

Form of BP Handbook Suggestion CO2

Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 74


Valleys 75
3.7 Costs 75
3.7.1 Observations from the CO2STORE Case-studies 75
Sleipner 75
Kalundborg 76
Mid-Norway 77
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 77
Valleys 78
3.7.2 Generic findings 79
4. SITE CHARACTERISATION 81
4.1 Geological characterisation of the site 81
4.1.1 Reservoir Structure 82
4.1.1.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 84
Sleipner 84
Kalundborg 85
Mid-Norway 87
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 87
Valleys 88
4.1.1.2 Generic findings 89
4.1.2 Reservoir properties 91
4.1.2.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 91
Sleipner 91
Kalundborg 94
Mid-Norway 95
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 97
Valleys 100
4.1.2.2 Generic findings 103
4.1.3 Overburden and caprock properties 105
4.1.3.1 Laboratory permeability testing 106
4.1.3.2 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 107
Sleipner 107
Kalundborg 112
Mid Norway 112
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 113
Valleys 116

4.1.3.3 Generic findings 117


4.2 Predictive Flow Modelling 119
4.2.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 120
Sleipner 120
Kalundborg 122
Mid-Norway 124
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 124
Valleys 129
4.2.2 Generic Findings 135
4.3 Geochemical assessment 135
4.3.1 Geochemical baseline characterisation of the storage
site 137
4.3.1.1 Caprock and reservoir mineralogical composition 137
4.3.1.2 Reservoir porewater sampling 138
4.3.1.3 Caprock porewater analysis 138
4.3.1.4 Laboratory data to be acquired to assess the water
chemistry 139
4.3.1.5 Prevailing pressure and temperature conditions in the
reservoir and caprock and their physical properties 139
4.3.1.6 Characterisation of the CO2 to be injected 139
4.3.1.7 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 139
Sleipner 139
4.3.2 Reservoir reactivity 140
4.3.2.1 Assessment of initial geochemical status 141
4.3.2.2 Short term geochemical interactions 141
4.3.2.3 Long-term predictive modelling 142
4.3.2.4 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 143
Sleipner 143
Kalundborg 143
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 143
4.3.3. Caprock reactivity 145
4.3.3.1 Assessment of the initial geochemical status 146
4.3.3.2 Short term geochemical interactions 146
4.3.3.3 Long term geochemical modelling 146

Form of BP Handbook Suggestion CO2

4.3.3.4 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 147


Sleipner 147
Kalundborg 148
Valleys 148
4.3.4 Chemical reactions within faults and fractures 149
4.3.4.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 150
Valleys 150
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 151
4.3.5 Generic findings 151
4.4 Geomechanical Assessment 152
4.4.1 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 152
Sleipner 152
4.5 Characterisation phase risk assessment 153
4.5.1 Working steps of the FEP method 153
4.5.2 Evaluation of consequences versus environmental
criteria 153
4.5.3 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 154
Sleipner 154
Kalundborg 154
Mid Norway 156
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 156
Valleys 165
4.5.4 Generic conclusions 168
4.6 Monitoring Programme design 169
4.6.1 Deep-focussed methods 172
4.6.1.1 4D surface seismic 172
4.6.1.2 Multi-component seismic 172
4.6.1.3 Microseismic monitoring 173
4.6.1.4 Surface microgravimetric monitoring 173
4.6.1.5 Well-based monitoring 174
4.6.1.6 Observations from the CO2STORE case-studies 174
Sleipner 174
4.6.2 Shallow focussed methods 177
4.6.2.1 Detection of CO2 in the atmosphere and/or sea-water
177
4.6.2.2 Detection of CO2 at the surface or in the shallow
subsurface 178
4.7 Transport 178
4.7.1 Pipeline 179

4.7.1.1 Pipeline route 179


Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 179
4.7.1.2 Determination of optimal pipeline diameter 180
Kalundborg 180
4.7.1.3 Costs 181
Kalundborg 181
Schwarze Pumpe (Schweinrich) 183
4.7.2 Ship 183
5. SITE DESIGN AND PLANNING CONSENT 185
5.1 Design 185
Sleipner 185
5.2 Planning Consent 185
5.2.1 National 185
Sleipner 186
Kalundborg 186
5.2.2 International 188
Kalundborg 189
6. SITE CONSTRUCTION 191
7. OPERATIONS PHASE 193
7.1 Operation and maintenance of pipeline and injection
facilities 193
7.1.1 Measurement of injected CO2 193
7.2 Monitoring 194
7.2.1 Time-lapse surface seismic monitoring 194
7.2.1.1 Imaging CO2 distribution and migration 196
7.2.1.2 Quantitative assessments 203
7.2.1.3 Other analysis 209
Pre-stack trace inversion 209
Pre-stack Depth Migration 212
Timeshift analysis 214
Reflection strength analysis and advanced display options 215
AVO analysis and elastic inversion 217
Analysis of velocity anisotropy 217
Super-resolution mapping of thin CO2 accumulations 219
7.2.2 Time-lapse seabed gravimetry 220
7.2.3 Generic findings 224
7.3 Flow simulations history-matched to monitoring data
225

Form of BP Handbook Suggestion CO2

7.3.1 History-matching monitoring datasets 225


7.3.1.1 Simulation tools used at Sleipner 225
7.3.1.2 Fluid and transport properties 227
7.3.1.3 Flow modelling 228
7.3.1.4
Simulation of the long-term fate of CO2 in
a large-scale model 230
Residual phase trapping 235
Coupled reaction-transport modelling 236
7.3.1.5 Generic findings 241
7.4 Laboratory experiments on wellbore
materials 241
8. CLOSURE PHASE 245
8.1 Closure application 245
8.2 Criteria for safe site closure 246
8.2.1 Monitoring requirements in the post-injection
and post-closure
periods 248
8.2.1.1 Types of monitoring 248
CO2 plume movement 248
Surface Monitoring 249
Reservoir pressure 249
Well integrity 249
8.2.2 Remediation planning 249
8.3 Transfer of liability from operator to national
authority 250
8.3.1 Decommissioning 250
8.4 Post-closure issues

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


Chapter 1 a
Definition of innovative concepts for investigating geothermal sites
Overview over innovative methods to define geothermal reservoirs
appropriate for EGS technology in Europe
Future innovative approaches would be strongly favoured by a close
support between academic fundamental research and engineers. This
Interplay between academic and engineering research has to extend over
multiple scales.
The investigation of geothermal sites requires different scales to be
considered, ranging from continental down to a specific site and reservoir
scale. The investigation is conducted through a variety of research
institutions. Universities play a leading role in fundamental research and
evaluation of new methods, strongly focused on the large scale
investigation
Basic aims: Understanding processes on large scale to define new
resources and smaller scales to engineer reservoirs better

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM
New concepts on the understanding of processes related to the
accumulation of geothermal energy.
An integrated earth system approach
Definition of the geothermal potential across the European continent on
different scales. Base for the definition of the energy mix in the single
EU member states from a geothermal point of view
The concept shall address the well-defined and in part already exploited
reservoirs and provide a tool to search for unknown resources in Europe on
the basis of process related investigations.
TECHNICAL PROGRAM
In contrast engineering experts tend to cover reservoir scale applications.
Improvement of existing concepts for reservoir engineering and in
cooperation with scientific approaches test new approaches

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Petrography, Petrophysics,
Mineralogy
Geochemistry
Stress Field
Borehole Geophysics
(Acoustic Borehole Imaging,
VSP,...)
Surface Geophysics (gravimetric, EM, Seismic)
Resource analysis
Geology, Hydrogeology
Heat Flow
Tomography
Lithosphere Strength
Moho Depth

Continental

Regional

Academic Research

Local

Reservoir
Engineering

Include numerical modelling on each


scale as a common base for different
investigation parameter (extrapolating
physical parameters to space and
time, understanding processes)

List of the different geoscientific


fields for investigating EGS/UGR
sites are represented.
The location of each text denotes
the typical scale that is also related
to the type of research needed in
the considered field. On large
scale (left) research is rather
fundamental ("academic"), and on
small reservoir scale (right)
research is rather applied
("engineering"). The length of each
text box represents the scale of
investigation, from continental to
reservoir scale.
The "Academic Research"
indicated in the Figure is not
necessarily limited by
Continental and Regional scales

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)

Outcome: Definition of an investigation concept

To be discussed:
Continental scale
Regional scale
Resource and reservoir level

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Continental scale (I):
3D lithosphere (strength) models allow continent-wide studies related to
geothermal energy. They shall provide a large-scale overview and first order
conceptual models of favourable conditions for enhanced geothermal
energy in the European continent. Lithosphere strength depends mainly on
heat flow and Moho depth (due to material composition), and secondly

on the stress field of the lithosphere.


Depth to Moho and surface heatflow allow derivation of the depth of the
base of the thermal Lithosphere, which can be an important information for
geothermal energy Should deep lithosphere be included in the BP
Handbook? We can drill (economically) only the top 5-6 km of the
lithosphere. Deep lithospheric processes and thickness of the thermal
lithosphere is mainly important from theoretical viewpoint, and from
scale analysis. In scale analysis I mean geodynamic/lithospheric
processes result in heat flow anomalies in the order of the thickness
of the lithosphere. Smaller heat flow anomalies have different causes.

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Continental scale (II):
Seismic tomography can provide essential information on rock densities at a
regional scale. at large depth and at a continental scale
Add MT studies at continental scale
Further large-scale geophysical data (e.g. gravity, electro-magnetic, and
seismic surveys) can be included.
A process-oriented approach is achieved using thermo-mechanical or
thermodynamic lithosphere models. This approach shall provide new
concepts leading to the detection of unknown resources.

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Regional scale
On a regional scale geothermal resources can be analysed structurally on the
basis of 3D geological models. Key data are:
field geology (better remote sensing to large scale for field geology)
Temperature distribution
Large structural features (fault / tectonic structures)
Seismics and MT on a more regional scale

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Resources and reservoir level

Key questions to be addressed in this concept:

How should a resource analysis be done?

How should a reservoir be accessed?

Integrated geophysical exploration such as developed in the I-GET


project (combination of 2D and 3D seismic and magnetotelluric studies)
and joint inversion methods can enhance the geometric information of the
3D geological models. The physical properties, however, provide further
information on mechanical and electric properties of the region, which
can contribute to the understanding of the hydrologic conditions.

On the same level investigation on the rheology, stress field


determination, geochemistry and hydrology can provide information on
geothermal fluids and the regional-scale fluid circulation pattern.
Resource analysis using coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical numerical
simulations can provide detailed investigation of the annual extractable
geothermal energy.

Especially, the hydraulic and chemical conditions of a potential


geothermal area, necessary for more detailed prediction, require a
detailed understanding of local processes on reservoir level.

Content of the BP Handbook (1a) Original


suggestion
Work-flow: From a continental scale to a borehole
1.
Continental scale approach
a)
b)
c)
d)

2.

3D lithosphere strength models


Tomography
Large scale Geophysics studies
Definition of interesting Basin/Platform/Region

Basin/Platform/Region scale
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

3.

Geophysics campaigns
Resource analysis
Stress tensor knowledge
Crosschecking with areas of demand for economy
Localisation of favourable sites

Site scale :
a)
b)

4.

seismic history
Local stress

Drilling
a)
b)
c)

5.

Geochmistry
Petrography, petrophysics, mineralogy
Well geophysics: Acoustic Borehole Imaging, Vertical Seismic Profile. Electrical cylinder (3-5m) ?
Enhance Media/Fractures knowledge and imaging around borehole

Stimulating
a)

Seismic monitoring
i.
ii.

b)

Hydraulic diffusivity estimation


Tomography

Injectivity Index evolution

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Work-flow: From a continental scale to a borehole
1.
Continental scale approach

2.

a)
Definition of interesting Basin/Platform/Region Introduction to 2.
Basin/Platform/Region scale
a)
3D lithosphere strength models
b)
Tomography (seismic and MT)
c)
Large scale Geophysics studies
d)

Remote sensing

e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Geophysics campaigns
Resource analysis
Stress tensor knowledge
Crosschecking with areas of demand for economy
Localisation of favourable sites

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Work-flow: From a continental scale to a borehole
3.

Site scale :
a)
3D geology (fault and fracture pattern, porosity) here field
geology appropriate
b)
3D MT imaging and sub-surface temperature estimation by EM
geothermometer developed recently by GEMRC
c)
seismic history
d)
Local stress

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Work-flow: From a continental scale to a borehole
ALTERNATVE: A more pragmatic approach
Form resource analysis to reservoir assessment
Compilation of existing data (geological, geophysical, borehole
information from wells in tne vicinity
Question to answer: Is this a productive ressource/reservoir? Can we
answer this question? How?
Decision on a first 2-D geophysical approach (seismics, MT, TEM, or
Vsp) identify large structures, stress field, geomechanical
parameters with the aim to define the first well approximately
Local 3D seismics and refined geological model. Determination of the
well path
Well- Logging
First tests (see WP Drilling) and then determination of the second
well path
INCLUDE
Evaluation of the single methods and instruments

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1a)
Work-flow: From a continental scale to a borehole
4.

5.

Drilling
a)
Geochmistry
b)
Petrography, petrophysics, mineralogy
c)
Well geophysics: Acoustic Borehole Imaging, Vertical Seismic
Profile. Electrical cylinder (3-5m) ? Enhance Media/Fractures
knowledge and imaging around borehole
Stimulating
a)
Seismic monitoring
i.
Hydraulic diffusivity estimation
ii. Tomography
b)
Injectivity Index evolution

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1b)

Generic studies are performed when the real field situation cannot be
accessed. This includes computer simulations, laboratory investigations
and field experiments.
The ultimate goal is to characterize and predict successful reservoir
assessment, through generic studies.
This could be achieved by applying the following strategy (workflow):

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1b)

Definition of criterions that play a important role for the success of EGS /
UGR projects
Evaluation of "critical values" (if exists) for each criterion.
Quantify importance of each criterion in order to allow heat extraction
and evaluate critical values requested for successful operations (may be
an "importance coefficient", from 1 to 5 can be evaluated for each
parameter). Several procedures can be envisaged:

Numerically reproduce the observations from successful reservoirs


and isolate key parameter/structure/critical values (i.e. major fault
zones for the characterization of the Soultz reservoir)

Laboratory experiments under typical stress and temperature


situations

Investigating processes and quantifying interactions (i.e. permeability


creation through stimulation) by field laboratories experiments.
Of course, the critical values and importance coefficient of these key
parameters or criterions must be in agreement with known successful
UGR/EGS examples around the world.
Plan for future joint research project rather than as a contents of
the Handbook to be published soon. Should the BP Hand book
contain only published material???

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1b)
Criterions (key parameters):

Heat flow;

Stress field;

Hydraulic information;

Structural features;

Mineralogy, Petrophysics, Geochemistry

rock type - impact on drilling;

population density;

Seismic risk

An energetic engineer needs 2 or 3 parameters:


Ultimate criterions:

Temperature, pressure

Flow rate

Water chemistry (less important)


The rest of the parameters, just help to determine these 2-3
parameters. How do we can quantify these parameters? a) From
case studies, b) From modelling.

Suggestions to the content of the BP Handbook


(1b)
Criterions (key parameters):

Heat flow;

Stress field;

Hydraulic information;

Structural features;

Mineralogy, Petrophysics, Geochemistry

rock type - impact on drilling;

population density;

Seismic risk
Generalization" of the parameters?

Table for different reservoirs (type of environment) and the values


of the parameters in the different type of reservoirs are given.