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ASAS

American Way

VS

Continental Way

FOKUS

ANALYSIS

DIAGNOSIS

VS

VS

SYNTHESIS

PROGNOSIS

TUJUAN

Business
Research
Kebijakan Perusahaan

VS

Policy
Research
Kebijakan Publik

AKTOR

MonoDisiplin

VS

LintasDisiplin

VS

InterDisiplin

TEKNIK

Quantitative
Research

VS

Qualitative
Research

METODOLOGI

Pendekatan
Statistik

VS

Pendekatan
Sistem

Unity
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S

Synthesis

Parts

PART AND
RELATIONSHIP

Keterkaitan Logika (Dubrousky, 2004)

SOFT SYSTEM
METHODOLOGY

Discover the Management Dilemma


Define the Management Question
Define the Research Question(s)

Refine the
Research
Question (s)

Exploration

Exploration

Formulate Preliminary
Hypotheses

Research
Proposal

Research Design
Data Collection
Design

Sampling
Design

Question &
Instrument Pilot
Testing

Preliminary Analysis
Planning

Sampling
Design

Refine Hypotheses
Data Visualization

Data Collection &


Preparation

Hypotheses Testing

Data Analysis & Interpretation


Legend
Research Reporting

Research Planning
Management
Decision

Data Gethering
Analysis Interpretation
Reporting

Hypothesis Testing and the Research Process (Cooper and Schindler, 2006)

Real World
1. The Problem
Situation Unstructured

7. Action to Improve
the Situation
6. Feasible, Desirable
Change

2. The Problem
Situation Expressed

5. Comparison of 4
with 2

System Thinking
4. Conceptual Models
3. Root Definitions
of Relevant Systems

4A. Formal System


Concept

4B. Other System


Thinking

Soft system methodology (Checkland, 1999)

Problem Entity

Conceptual Models
Validity

Operational Validity

Experimentation

Analysis and Modelling

Data
Validity

Computer Programming

Conceptual Models

Computerized Models
and Implementation

Computerized Models
Validity

Simplified version of the Modeling Process (Sargent, 1999)

System Complexity

Feels about

Defines

The decision makers ability to


cope with complexity

The nature of the system


under consideration

Defines

Defines

A particular system under


consideration

The decision maker with his/her


objective and resource

Defines

Ability to observe

Situation type

Approaches/
defines
Constrains/
shapes

Real World Situation

Diagammatic description of system complexity (Ho and Sculli 1995)

Pendekatan Empirik (data


base)
Probability Theory
(Statistical Inference)

R2 =

Validity
Coefisien of determination

Prakiraan
(Forcasting)
Pendekatan Semi Empirik
(knowledge base)
Possibility Theory
(Inference Engine)

1. Fuzzy set theory


2. Neural networks
3. Knowledge based technology

Teknik Prakiraan Situasional

Verifikasi
CI = Consistency Indeks